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Toronto Normal School 

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Training and Re-establishment Insiiiuu- 

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Centenary Celebration . 


Centenary Address, by J. G. Althouse, M.A., D.Paed., LL.D. . 13 

Chief Director of Education for the Province of Ontario. 



I. Old Government House . 

II. First Year . . 27 

III. Temperance Hall . . 32 

IV. St. James Square . . 38 
V. Years of Transition ...... .45 

VI. Turn of the Century . . 51 

VII. Between Two Wars . . 58 

VIII. To-Day . 64 

Staff Through the Century . 70 


n addition to the acknowledgments made in follow 
ing pages, the Centennial Committee of the Toronto 
Normal School wish to express their thanks to Mr. David 
Whyte, who supplied helpful information regarding the 
years when Mr. Scott w as principal. Appreciation is 
also expressed to those who have co-operated to make 
the publication of this volume possible: the Ontario De 
partment of Education, the Toronto Training and Re- 
establishment Institute, and the editorial committee 
J. C. Boylen. H. E. Elborn. Miss Jean Merchant and 
Dr. G. W. Spragge. 


Part I 

Centenary Celebration 


A HE PROGRAMME OB THE Centenary Celebration of the 
Toronto Normal School centred around two main events: first, a dinner 
in Simpson s Arcadian Court on the evening of October 24, 1947, when 
six hundred and fifty graduates and friends gathered to celebrate the 
one hundredth birthday of the School; and second, a reception attended 
by some hundreds of graduates on the following afternoon at the School s 
old buildings in St. James Square, Church and Gould Streets. 

A spirit of re-union pervaded the attractive Court on the night of 
the dinner. The ushers twelve students of the 1947-48 year, directed 
by Mr. C. A. Mustard, M.B.E. showed guests to the tables reserved 
for special visitors, for members of the staff of the Normal and Normal- 
Model Schools, and for graduates of the various years. As "it s always 
fine weather when good fellows get together," the room was bright with 
crowding memories when the guests at the head table filed to their places. 

Mr. Z. S. Phimister, Superintendent of Public Schools, Toronto, 
and a graduate of 1924, called the assembly to order, and, as chairman, 
asked the senior graduate present, Dr. John Dearness, 71, to say Grace. 
In a firm voice that scarcely needed the public address system to carry 
it throughout the great room, Dr. Dearness, whose personal memories 
cover three-quarters of the School s first century, asked the blessing of 
God upon the gathering. 

Head table guests were: Mr. Z. S. Phimister, Chairman, and Mrs. 
Phimister; Dr. J. G. Althouse, Chief Director of Education, and Mrs. 
Althouse; Mr. F. S. Rutherford, Deputy Minister of Education, and Mrs. 
Rutherford; Hon. Mr. Justice J. A. Hope, Chairman of the Royal Com 
mission on Education, and Mrs. Hope; Dr. H. E. Amoss, Superintendent 
of Professional Training, and Mrs. Amoss; Mrs. S. J. Radcliffe, whose 
husband, Dr. Radcliffe, was Principal of the School from 1918 to 1929; 

Mr. David Whyte, Principal of the School, 1929-38, and Mrs. Whyte; 
Drr John Dearness; Mr. H. E. Elborn, Principal since 1939, and Mrs. 

The programme following the dinner opened with a Toast to the 
King, proposed by the Chairman. After introducing the guests at the head 
table, Mr. Phimister spoke as follows: 

"Now I should like to be able to introduce everyone in this room 
where we have so many classes of the Toronto Normal School repre 
sented. I suppose each class looks back upon its own year and thinks 
that in that year the fairest girls and the plainest men were gathered 

"One of the clearest memories I have of my year at Normal is that 
of Dr. Radcliffe teaching with the sun shining on his beaming face. 
With Dr. Radcliffe education was a thing of the heart as well as the mind 
and soon his enthusiasms were shared by his students. He was a great 
inspiration to all of us. In that same year, 1923, Thornton Mustard be 
came a member of the Normal School staff and taught demonstration 
lessons for the students. I never heard Literature taught until I heard 
Thornton Mustard. The lessons he produced I still remember. 

The splendour falls on castle walls. 
I am Bega least of bells. 
Tiger, tiger, burning bright. 

"All of you will recall with a certain nostalgia, I am sure, the period 
of your training at the Toronto Normal School. This evening you will 
have an opportunity to greet old classmates and members of the Normal 
School staffs through the years. I am sure that those whom we would 
wish to be here to-night will be with us in spirit as we carry on this 

"Not only do we celebrate the one hundredth birthday of the Toronto 
Normal School but on this 24th of October, 1947, we commemorate the 
Centenary of Teacher Training in Ontario. Teacher training in this 
Province began on November 1st, 1847, when the Provincial Normal 
School was opened in the old Government House at the corner of King 
and Simcoe Streets. Two of the speakers on that occasion were the Chief 
Superintendent of Schools, Dr. Egerton Ryerson, and the new Head 
master of the Normal School, Mr. T. J. Robertson. 

"Ten years prior to the opening of the Normal School, Queen Victoria 
had come to the throne of England as a young girl of 18. In 1897 she 

celebrated the sixtieth year of her reign, and in that same year on 
November 2nd, 1897, one hundred men prominent in the life of the 
Province, all of them graduates of the Toronto Normal School, cul 
minated a three-day programme celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of 
the School by holding a dinner. One of the guests that evening who 
responded to the Toast to the ex-students was Inspector John Dearness, 
who had graduated from the Toronto Normal School in 1871. We are 
proud to have with us on the occasion of the hundredth birthday of the 
Toronto Normal School, Dr. Dearness, who in his own person carries 
us back to those halcyon days when there were no motor accidents, 
no telephones, no radio, when progress was an admirable word and the 
future was bright. It may be that there are persons in this room to-night 
who, fifty years hence, may participate in the Sesqui-centennial of 
teacher-training and the 150th birthday of the Toronto Normal School. 
I wonder what changes such persons would see in 1997. In 1897 one 
hundred men celebrated the fiftieth anniversary. To-night some six 
hundred celebrate the hundredth anniversary, and the men now are in 
a minority. Perhaps fifty years hence the wheel will have gone full 
circle and the celebrations will be conducted wholly by the women with 
the men remaining at home. 

"Not only is this an historic occasion because we celebrate the 
centennial of teacher-training and the hundredth birthday of the Toronto 
Normal School, but also because at the end of this first century we 
stand poised at the beginning of great new developments in education 
comparable to the developments which followed the Ryerson Report 
in 1846. What was conceived and built in those early years was the main 
structure of the educational system in this Province which has prevailed 
for the past century. Now the old premises are being closely scrutinized 
and a new stucture is being considered. The principal architect of the 
new structure is with us at this table this evening, The Honourable Mr. 
Justice John A. Hope, Chairman of the Royal Commission on Education. 

"So at this time when we look back at the century which has passed, 
we stand on the threshold of things to come as did the people of this 
Province in 1847 when the common schools and teachers for those 
common schools were being developed. 

"To-night when we are conscious of the challenge of the future as 
well as the history of the past, we must face the fact that in a democracy 
leaders must have the support of the majority of the people. Few things 
can be done unless the mass is ready to do its share. Hence, to all of us 

to-night must come the thought that the future is not only what the 
leaders conceive but what the rest of us accept as our responsibility. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Phimister s address, Mr. Albert Carr, a 
graduate of 1946-47, the Centennial Year, added much to the pleasure of 
the evening by singing two solos, accompanied at the piano by Miss 
Olive Russell, 36. 

The Chairman then asked Dr. H. E. Amoss to introduce the guest 
speaker, Dr. J. G. Althouse. Dr. Amoss, Ontario s Superintendent of Pro 
fessional Training, made thoughtful observations on problems of teacher- 
training, and paid tribute to the leadership given by Dr. Althouse, who 
was organizing a corps of experts within the Department to carry out the 
policies which would evolve from the findings of the Royal Commission 
on Education. 

The Centenary Address delivered by Dr. Althouse will be found in 
this volume on pages 13 to 20. 

The programme of the dinner concluded in re-union vein. "Greetings 
to the Students and Staff over the Years" were conveyed in genial style 
by Mr. W. E. Hanna, who graduated from the School in 1903, and who 
retired in 1947 from the Principalship of the Oakwood Collegiate In 
stitute. Mr. Hanna asked representatives of the eighties and nineties to 
stand; he gave special attention to the "nought" years, including his own 
03; and then turned to the memory of men and women who had con 
tributed much to the School, but who were no longer living. Reading 
the roster of Principals who had passed on, he asked the assembly to 
rise in honour of these men and their associates. Mr. David Whyte, 
Principal Emeritus of the School, replied on behalf of former students 
and staff to Mr. Hanna s address. In his references to the progress of the 
School over the years, Mr. Whyte mentioned particularly the contribu 
tion of women-teachers to the educational life of the Province, and 
emphasized the outstanding work of the Soldier Year of 1919-20. This 
notable group was well represented at the dinner, and its members stood 
at Mr. Whyte s request. 

"Greetings to the Toronto Normal School of To-day" were extended 
by Mr. Harvey Griffin, Superintendent of Public Schools, York Township, 
and a graduate of 14. Mr. Griffin, as an administrator responsible for 
supervising recent graduates, congratulated the School on its effective 
work, and also referred to the influence of the association of students one 
with another during their training year. He asked graduates of his own 
year, 1914, to stand, and stand they did, some fifty strong, under the 
leadership of their president, Miss Rilla Clegg. This group had held 
annual re-unions for many years, and their representation was perhaps 

the greatest of any single year at the dinner. Reply to Mr. Griffin s 
address was voiced by Mr. H. E. Elborn, Principal of the School, who 
extended the thanks of the Centennial Committee to graduates; to staff 
members, both present and former; to officials of the Department of 
Education; and to the Director, Principal, and staff of the Toronto Train 
ing and Re-establishment Institute, for their help in making the Centen 
ary Celebration a success. 

The dinner closed with the singing of Auld Lang Syne. 

The Centennial Reception on the following afternoon at the buildings 
formerly occupied by the Normal School at Church and Gould Streets, 
was made possible by the generous co-operation of the Training and 
Re-establishment Institute, and particularly of its Director, Mr. H. H. 
Kerr; its Principal, Lt. Col. F. H. Wood; and its hostess, Mrs. Gladys 
Dobson. The opportunity of visiting the old School, the scene of their 
training days, was appreciated by some hundreds of graduates. Guests 
were received for the first hour by Principal and Mrs. H. E. Elborn, 
Miss Jean Merchant, and Miss Florence F. Halliday, and for the second 
hour by Principal Emeritus and Mrs. David Whyte, Mr. and Mrs. R. A. 
Johnston, and Mr. A. M. Patterson. Tours arranged by Lt. Col. F. H. 
Wood, and conducted by members of his staff, showed graduates the old 
Normal School building, as altered for the instruction in trades of men 
and women from the Forces. As part of each tour, guests were shown 
an historical display, Toronto Normal School, 1847-1947, prepared by 
students of the Centennial Year under the general direction of a member 
of the Normal School staff, Lt. Col. M. H. Park. Episodes from the School s 
story over the century were depicted in a frieze, developments in method 
ology and school management were illustrated by series of charts, while 
models of schools, kindergarten classrooms, and educational projects 
emphasized contrasting practices over the years. A collection of items 
related to the School from the Provincial Archives was also on display, 
the selection having been made by Dr. G. W. Spragge, Secretary of the 
Ontario Historical Society. 

Tea was served in the dining-room of the Institute, where the 
hostesses were Mrs. E. H. McKone, Dean of Women, Toronto Normal 
School, and Mrs. G. Dobson of the Re-establishment Institute. Students 
of the 1947-48 year assisted, and tea was poured by Mrs. S. J. Radcliffe, 
and Mrs. John Elborn of Stratford, a graduate of 1888. To Mrs. James 
Kerr, a graduate of 1887, fell the honour of cutting the Hundredth Birth 
day Cake, which was in the form of an open book, with a picture of the 
School brushed on the icing of one of its pages. 

The wide range of years represented in the register signed by the 
guests at the reception showed how loyally graduates had cherished the 
interest aroused in the School during their training year. 

The committees responsible for the Centenary Celebration were as 

Central Committee: F. S. Rivers, H. H. Kerr, H. E. Elborn. 

Banquet Committee: R. A. Johnston, C. A. Mustard, H. A. Blanchard, 

Miss Edna B. Rennie, E. Learoyd, A. McLeod, A. Goodwin, M. 

McCordic, C. Vanderburgh, C. Potts, C. Chellew, G. Phillips, J. E. 

Laughlin, S. Taylor, E. Parsons, Misses O. H. Clegg, M. Loblaw, 

B. MacBrien, M. McVey, E. Lamb, B. Haines, A. Ryrie, M. Moore, 

M. Hamilton, M. Allen, Mesdames J. M. McEachern, A. Wright, 

P. Roszell, and C. Atkinson. 
Invitation Committee: Miss J. L. Merchant, Miss F. F. Halliday, Mr. 

A. M. Patterson. 
Programme Committee: H. E. Elborn, Dr. W. E. M. Aitken, Mrs. 

F. G. Russell. 

Reception Committee: Mrs. E. H. McKone, Miss M. Young, David Burns. 
Historical Display Committee: M. H. Park, W. L. Strieker, Miss J. M. 

Editorial Committee: J. C. Boylen, H. E. Elborn, Miss J. L. Merchant, 

and Dr. G. W. Spragge. 
Treasurer: R. A. Johnston. 


Part II 

Centenary Address 

(Dr. J. G. Althouse, Chief Director cf Education for the Province 
of Ontario, delivered the Centenary Address at the Hundredth 
Birthday Dinner of Toronto Normal School on October 24, 1947. 
The text cf Dr. Althouse s address is given below.) 

V-/UR GATHERING TO-NIGHT is to celebrate one hundred years 
of teacher-training in this Province. Yet the first attempts to introduce 
teacher-training occurred at least a quarter of a century earlier a 
monitorial school at Kingston and the Central School at York both 
proposed to train teachers, although neither succeeded. A little later, 
Township Model Schools (not to be confused with the later County 
and District Model Schools) actually began to train teachers, but they 
dwindled to a mere handful by 1847, and by 1855 had ceased to function. 
The founding of the Normal School was, then, the third attempt at 
training teachers. Its importance lies not in its antiquity but in its success. 

That success was not immediate nor rapidly attained. It was achieved 
rather slowly and by great effort. Often it was recognized more readily 
by later generations than by contemporaries. And, partly because of 
these very facts, the success of Normal School teacher-training in this 
Province is of profound significance. For this sustained attempt to train 
teachers is at once an indication of the determination of the Provincial 
Government to develop a coherent, comprehensive system of education, 
and a potent reason for the growth of such a system. In a day when, 
perforce, much had to be left to the local community in the provision 
and support of common schools; in a day when of necessity there had to 
be a wide variation in the accommodation and equipment of schools, 
it was a shrewd and statesmanlike move for the Provincial authorities 
to concern themselves with the improvement of the teaching staff. 

In teacher-training, Provincial control, as illustrated by the Normal 
School, was vigorously challenged by local interest. The result was the 
competitive system of County Model Schools, which were commended 
to many by their inexpensive, short courses and by their apparent 
practicality. Yet, in the long run, these Model Schools became ancillary 


co the Normal Schools and ultimately disappeared. Their influence, 
however, had been extensive. Probably they contributed more than their 
protagonists knew to the tradition that teaching is a natural stepping- 
stone to something more lucrative and of higher prestige. Yet they did 
exercise a salutary influence upon those who were inclined to over 
emphasize the academic and the theoretical. 

How did it happen that one kind of teacher training the Normal 
School type has endured for a hundred years in this Province, whereas 
other types, introduced with high hopes and for practical reasons, have 
had a much shorter history? I shall not attempt to discern and record 
all the reasons that must be left to a more analytical observer. But I 
do suggest one reason which I hope will be obvious to all. The Normal 
School type of teacher-training endured because it was able to adapt 
itself to changing conditions and expanding concepts of public education. 
Sometimes it did this very slowly, almost reluctantly; on memorable 
occasions it anticipated coming trends. 

Its darkest days were those in which it sought to perpetuate a rigid : 
authoritarian system which was probably the only safe method for 
teachers who were immature, poorly equipped with academic knowledge 
and condemned to a bare subsistence economic level by the pitiful 
salaries of the day. It was unfair to expect such persons to think construc 
tively for themselves and for their pupils. So the Normal School sought 
to teach them sure-fire methods of dealing with every teaching problem. 
When the new High Schools began to do a better job of academic prepara 
tion, when the average entrance age of the student teachers rose, and 
when more adequate remuneration for teachers was offered, the Normal 
School appeared to be grudging in its tardy recognition of these facts, 
and earned an unenviable reputation for stodginess and dullness. 

Its brightest days were those in which the staff set the pace in this 
country in arousing interest in the child rather than in the curriculum 
and in humanizing the outlook as well as the methods of the schools. It 
is only fair to add that the bright spots in the record are more numerous 
and more extensive than the dull patches. But those who experienced 
the dull patches have been unforgiving critics. 

The ability of the Normal School to adapt itself to changing condi 
tions is well illustrated by the change of locale of the Toronto Normal 
School. Its earliest home in the old Government House was an omen 
of the proprietory concern which the Provincial Government would 
continue to entertain for it. The speed with which the Normal School 

evacuated in 1849, when Parliament returned (at least in alternate years) 
to its old quarters, was prophetic of its prompt response, ninety-odd years 
later, when a greater national emergency arose. 

The tenancy of Temperance Hall invites obvious comment, from 
which I shall refrain, noting only that the sojourn was brief and ter 
minated with enthusiasm on the part of the students and staff, if we are to 
believe the record. 

The historic building, opened in 1852, is well described in the 
centenary brochure as "more than a Normal School," "the centre of the 
publicly-supported school system of the Province." It was surely putting 
first things first to make the Departmental administrative offices an 
adjunct of the teacher-training institution, for, whatever the administra 
tive machinery may be, actual education takes place in the meeting of 
pupil and teacher; its quality depends upon the effectiveness of that 
meeting. And it was wholesome that in the teacher-training institution 
there should be found the Depository, devoted to the supplying of school 
equipment, the Museum, the germ of later developments in Art as well 
as in Museum activity, and the Botanical Garden, the forerunner of 
experimental training in Agriculture as well as in advanced Botany. 

This combination of the cultural and the practical, both in conjunc 
tion with the development of teaching techniques, was a happy augury 
of the leadership which Ontario has shown in the development of voca 
tional education and in experiments in adapting schools to rural needs. 
One cannot but feel that Ryerson would be quite content to see the 
practical use now made of the plant at 50 Gould Street in the rehabilita 
tion training of the men and women of the armed services. 

But enough of the physical evidences of the Normal School s versatil 
ity and universality. The steady growth there of a philosophy of educa 
tion is of much greater importance. The Normal School was established, 
as your record aptly says, "in a period when knowledge and skill were 
synonymous with education." It was a time, too, when knowledge was 
conspicuously lacking in most of the candidates who presented them 
selves for teacher-training. Small wonder that the Normal School found 
its chief business that of supplying and organizing knowledge, and that 
the theory that knowledge is power even teaching power met with 
ready approval. 

Two comments may be relevant at this point. The first is that even 
in those days, when the acquisition of knowledge bulked so large in the 

training programme, there were enlightened gropings towards a more 
profound philosophy of education. The Pestalozzian system of object 
lessons was so well exemplified at the Toronto Normal School that 
American visitors were frequent and departed deeply impressed.* The 
history method described on page 26 of your centenary booklet is a 
startling departure from the rigidly-organized, meticulously memorized 
type of information so much esteemed in the period. 

The other comment is that the present age is one in which there is a 
definite return to the recognition of the importance of knowledge and 
of skill. We have emerged from a global war, in which good intent was 
strikingly futile unless backed by sound knowledge and accurate skill. 
To-day we can look with great sympathy on the insistence of the early 
Normal School masters upon the mastery of knowledge. But we now 
maintain that educative knowledge must be carefully selected. It must 
be fundamental, so that it can be adapted to changing needs. It must be 
appropriate to the age of the pupil, so that it may result in independent 
judgment, not in routine acquiescence. It must be dynamic, leading to 
the acquisition and systematization of more knowledge. To-day we may 
be critical of a curriculum-centred theory of education; we dare not be 
hostile to a theory that insists upon the pupils learning thoroughly and 
accurately the things which human society has stamped as essential for 
intelligent citizenship. 

The re-organization of the secondary schools in 1871 released the 
Normal School from the necessity of finding its major task in the impart 
ing of knowledge. Candour compels the admission that this release was 
greeted with little enthusiasm. It is a truism to say that teacher-training 
colleges find it difficult to admit that the schools which supply them 
with students equip those students adequately. The training colleges 
can almost always discover convincing reasons for spending much time 
in remedying that inadequate equipment. This was true of the Normal 
School in the 70 s, but gradually it became clear, even to the Normal 
School, that its task was no longer academic preparation. Its next 
preoccupation was methodology. This had two notable results. It empha 
sized the importance of group instruction (here it is well to remember 
that, for reasons of economy alone, group instruction is still the method 
of most publicly-supported schools) . And it led inevitably to a growing 
concern about the nature of the child. 

Among the discoveries about child nature which attracted attention 
at the time was the fact that a child learns faster and better when his 
interest is aroused. Motivation still remains a key word in education. 

* Page 44 of this volume. 

During the war we saw previously indifferent pupils master difficult 
courses rapidly and well they had potent motivation. We could not 
forget that for half a century and more the schools had been seeking 
to motivate pupils by competition and by appeals to self-interest. The 
results had not been satisfactory. In wartime we learned that the motiva 
tion of duty, of shared responsibility, of joint obligation was stronger 
than we had dared to hope. It will be too bad if we forget that lesson 
in these troublous times of peace. But I wander from the point, which 
is that in the 70 s, 80 s and 90 s the aim of the Normal School moved 
from the organization of teaching material to a better understanding of 
the mind of the pupil. This involved a decline in the emphasis on formal 
discipline and the appearance of much specialization in teacher-training 
courses. For example, it was during this period that the kindergarten 
movement reached the Province and summer sessions, offered at first 
by voluntary agencies, supplemented the regular teacher-training course 
and gave opportunity for specialization. 

It was not until the turn of the century, however, that this special 
ization envisaged much more than concentration upon certain subjects 
of instruction or upon methods in certain areas of the curriculum. Then, 
in gradual manner, came the recognition that the most fruitful sort of 
specialized teacher-training deals not with subject matter but with the 
different ages, the varying temperaments and the differing abilities of 
the children in the schools. With this conviction, Ontario teacher-training 
came of age; henceforth it focussed the attention of the student-teachers 
upon the pupil. 

Many improvements have followed this philosophical turning-point 
in our teacher-training. A few examples must suffice; the whole list is 
too extensive to be enumerated. Practice teaching schedules have be 
come longer and more realistic, rural practice has received greater 
attention, and the doctrines of pupil-participation so warmly advocated 
by the Normal School staff have actually been practised in some of the 
Normal School classes! 

Many reforms still remain to be effected, but one phase of the recent 
development of Ontario teacher-training deserves grateful remembrance. 
It is this. American theories of psychology and particularly the philoso 
phy of John Dewey have exerted a deep influence on our educational 
thought and practice, but American Progressivism has never led the 
principals and staffs of our Normal Schools to believe or to teach that 
whatever is natural to the child must therefore be wholesome. Our 
Normal Schools have held firmly to the faith that the individual is a 

social being, that his life is meaningless except in a social setting in 
other words, that he must develop into a citizen as well as into a 

The late Thornton Mustard was an outstanding apostle of freedom 
amongst us. He believed in freedom for the child to develop into an 
effective adult an adult in a society of adults bound together by mutual 
obligations as well as by common hopes, aspirations and faiths. That 
concept of freedom for the development of social effectiveness is far 
removed from the thinking which sees in freedom only absence of re 
straint and liberation from obligation. 

Our comparative immunity from what has been called "the North 
American epidemic of irresponsibility" has been purchased at a price. 
We have proceeded with painful slowness towards a frank understanding 
of individual differences in children, and equally slowly towards the 
modifications of our school courses suggested by these differences. We 
have been reluctant to abandon traditional school programmes lest we 
thereby abandon sound standards of thoroughness. Probably we have 
allowed our pride in our Scottish (and Northern Irish) respect for 
intellectual excellence to blind us to the importance of excellence in the 
fields of the practical, the emotional and the aesthetic. Be this as it may, 
it remains true that several generations of young persons who have 
left our schools, and their Normal-trained staffs, have won for Canada 
an enviable reputation for industry, integrity, resourcefulness, humanity 
and sensitivity to the calls of duty. 

The proof of the pudding, we are told, is the eating of it. I submit 
that the pudding in which so many Normal-trained teachers have had 
a hand has turned out to be sound, substantial, honest fare. It may have 
lacked spice and variety; it may even have been a bit heavy in spots. 
But the eating of it has left neither a dark-brown taste nor a sour stomach 
only a healthy appetite for more. To this appetite ample witness is 
borne by the unparalleled demand of our service veterans for rehabilita 
tion training and by the presently congested enrolment of our 

The charge that the teacher-training of our Normal Schools has not 
manifested a consistent philosophy of education leaves me unperturbed. 
Improvement is better than consistency, any day. When the chief concern 
of educators progresses from subject-matter to method to pupil, I rejoice 
in its inconsistency. When the pupil is habitually regarded as a social 
being with interdependent rights and obligations, I refuse to be upset 
by superficial contradictions in the record. 

Read the centenary brochure again, and with particular attention 
to the description of the successive Principals of this Normal School. 
They differed widely, in background, in temperament, even in deport 
ment. But you will be struck, as I was, by the amazing proportion of them 
who are characterized by the word "kind." That was their bond of kin 
ship; they were genuinely interested in their fellows and in their task 
of guiding the development of little children. T. J. Robertson and Dr. 
Sangster were separated from S. J. Radcliffe, David Whyte, Thornton 
Mustard and H. E. Elborn by years of time, by marked changes in social 
habits and by the bewildering effects of scientific developments which 
have altered ways of thought as much as ways of communication. But 
fundamentally these Principals and their staffs have all been in one line 
of succession. The mark of that line is unlimited devotion to the cause of 
better opportunities for the children of this Province opportunities to 
develop into sturdy, efficient, considerate citizens. 


History of the 

Toronto Normal School 


Chapter I 

Old Government House 


J.HE TIME WAS AFTERNOON, November 1, 1847. The place 
was the ballroom of old Government House, at the corner of King and 
Simcoe Streets, Toronto. The event was the formal opening of the Provin 
cial Normal School. "On entering the room," wrote a reporter in The 
British Colonist, "we found it changed in every feature. At the western 
end was a raised platform. In the centre of the platform were seated the 
Chief Superintendent of Schools [Dr. Egerton Ryerson] and other Mem 
bers of the Provincial Board of Education, Mr. T. J. Robertson, Head 
Master of the Normal School, Mr. H. Y. Hind, the Lecturer on Mathema 
tics, Natural Philosophy and Agricultural Chemistry." On either hand 
were leading citizens in the realms of church, school, and state among 
them Bishop John Strachan, Dr. John McCaul, and Chief Justice John 
Beverley Robinson. "The body of the hall was crowded by those inter 
ested in Education," continued The British Colonist with enthusiasm. (Its 
publisher was a member of the Board of Education possibly one of those 
on the platform.) "The room was nearly filled," reported The Globe with 
less enthusiasm, "and there was a tolerably fair attendance of officials 
and others who make up the show of a Toronto exhibition." (The Globe 
had not forgotten Dr. Ryerson s stand in the election of 1844.) 

The programme opened with prayer, after which Dr. Ryerson de 
livered an address. Then forty-four years of age, the Superintendent was 
in the prime of life, and his keen eye and genial presence lent persuasion 
to his words. He began with an explanation of the name of the school. 
"The word Normal signifies according to rule, or principle, and is em 
ployed to express the systematic teaching of the rudiments of learning. 
... A Normal School . . . is a school in which the principles and prac 
tice of teaching according to rule, are taught and exemplified." After a re 
view of current school legislation, the speaker dealt directly with the new 
venture. The establishment of a Normal School having been approved 
by the Legislature, the Board of Education for Upper Canada had lost no 



time in applying for the premises known as Old Government House, in 
repairing them, and in selecting through the Board of National Educa 
tion of Ireland, a Head Master. The Model School would open early in 
1848 in a neigbouring building. "Of the extension and complete success 
of our Provincial Normal School I have not the shadow of doubt," de 
clared Dr. Ryerson. In conclusion, he introduced to the assembly the 
principal, Thomas Jaffray Robertson, former Chief Inspector of National 
Schools of Ireland, and the assistant teacher, Henry Youle Hind. 

Robertson s bearing tall, sturdy, and erect commanded the respect 
of the audience. His massive forehead, curly black locks, black eyes be 
neath shaggy brows, bronzed face, and black beard gave him an appear 
ance resembling that of Charles Dickens. Briefly he outlined the nature of 
an institution for teacher-training, and described the benefits realized by 
Ireland from the establishment of Normal and Model Schools. He was 
critical of the monitorial system of teaching, stating that it made teachers 
indolent, and teaching too much a matter of routine. He advocated the 
simultaneous method, with the teacher dealing directly with his pupils. 

"Throughout his address," reported The British Colonist, "Mr. Robert 
son displayed the accomplishments of the scholar allied to the practical, 
so necessary to success in the onerous task committed to his hands." 

Henry Youle Hind, was the third speaker of the evening. This young 
Englishman of twenty-four, who was later to win a reputation as a geolo 
gist and explorer, delivered a lecture on the subjects of Natural Philo 
sophy, Agricultural Chemistry, and Mathematics. So greatly did Ids 
address impress The British Colonist, that it secured a copy for publica 
tion in its issue of November 9. The Globe was sympathetic but inclined to 
defer judgment. "Both he and Mr Robertson," it reported, "are evidently 
accomplished men in point of information. But something more is re 
quired than knowledge. The teachers of a Normal School should be men, 
not only of information, but full of fire and zeal, which it should be their 
study to infuse into their pupils, that they may carry the same spirit into 
every common school house in the Province. Sincerely do we hope that 
these gentlemen may be found possessed of these important qualifica 
tions they have our best wishes for their complete success." 

Next morning twenty young men enrolled as students. Before long, 
this number had increased to fifty-two, nearly half of whom had had 
some previous experience in teaching. In after years, one of these first 
students, Rev. E. H. Dewart, D.D., spoke thus of the opening of the school: 
"The establishment of a Normal School for the training of teachers for 
our Public Schools was the opening of a fountain at which many thirsty 

Old Government House 

Courtesy John Ross Robertson Historical Collection 

souls, whom circumstances had previously shut out from such a privilege, 
were permitted to slake their thirst for knowledge. I can testify from 
personal experience and observation that the students at the earlier 
sessions were nearly all of this class. I shall never forget how the an 
nouncement of the opening of the Normal School in Toronto, which I 
incidentally saw in a newspaper, fell on my path, in the backwoods of 
the county of Peterborough, like a beam of light from Heaven. I had 
tried, some time before that, to make an arrangement to go to another 
educational institution and had failed, and was very much disappointed. 
I read the announcement over and over. It seemed almost too good 
to be true, but it seemed to be just what I required. I wrote to Dr. 
Ryerson, and received an encouraging answer. So I started for Toronto 
and tramped one hundred and twenty miles through the November 
snows. Like another pilgrim we read of, I found hills of difficulty and 
sloughs of despond before I reached the celestial city. But though foot 
sore and weary, I trudged on and never thought of turning back. A kind 
welcome from Dr. Ryerson and Mr. Robertson, the Head Master, made 
me forget all the fatigue of the journey." 

Old Government House was an admirable first home for the Normal 
School. Vacant because of the transfer of the capital, first to Kingston and 
later to Montreal, after the Union of Upper and Lower Canada in 1841, 
the former residence of the Governor had passed into the hands of the 
city. In the spring of 1846, Ryerson made arrangements by which "old 
Government House and Appendages" were to be turned over to the 
Board of Education. The "appendages" were chiefly the stables which 
were to house the model school. 

Built of wood, with roughcast exterior, Government House has been 
described as "a large yellow-coloured house about which there is nothing 
particularly worthy of remark," but a painting still in existence seems to 
belie this disparaging comment. The grounds were "prettily laid out in 
plantations and groves," and to their natural beauty was added a small 
stream running through a ravine. The city seems to have used the prop 
erty as a park, for in The Globe of September 8, 1847, we read that "the 
Rifle Band will play in the Normal School Grounds at 4 o clock, instead 
of 5, every Tuesday afternoon." 

Toronto was, at this time, a growing young city with a population of 
just over 20,000, forty per cent, of whom were from Ireland. Government 
House faced Wellington Street at the south-west corner of King and 
Simcoe Streets. To the south, between Wellington and Front Streets, were 
the old Parliament Buildings, in use at that time as a Lunatic Asylum. 
Directly north, across King Street, was Upper Canada College. "Walking 
eastward along King Street," stated a newcomer, "proceeding as far 
north as Queen, we found we had, as far as business was concerned, seen 
Toronto, with the exception of a few wholesale warehouses south of 
King. Along Church Street . . . could be heard tintinnabulation of the 
bells on the necks of the cows which roamed through the browny-green 
pastures and among the thick bush which prevailed east of Church and 
north of Queen Street." 

A fine building for King s College had been built at the head of Col 
lege Avenue (now University Avenue) ; streets were being opened and a 
few houses erected between Queen and College. The city was confined 
for the most part, however, to the district south of Queen Street. Stages 
ran daily to Kingston, Hamilton, and Holland Landing, while local traffic 
was handled by omnibuses which left Yorkville for King Street "every 
half hour, from IVz o clock a. m. to 8 p. m." 

The opening of a provincial Normal School in a city of such a size was 
a matter of no small importance. 


Chapter II 

First Years 

.HE FORMAL OPENING of the Normal School, as described 
in the previous chapter, was to use Churchill s phrase, the end of the be 
ginning. Some years of study, planning, and effort had gone before. 

The first Common School Act of Upper Canada had taken, in 1816, 
a first step towards publicly supported schools, and in succeeding years, 
under the direction of the Rev. Dr. John Strachan, an educational sys 
tem had been established in the Province. But the political turmoil pre 
ceding the rebellion of 1837 had obstructed educational progress, and it 
was not until after the union of the provinces in 1841 that overdue meas 
ures were taken to improve conditions in schools. The establishment of 
a Normal School then became a matter of concern. 

In many countries, notably Prussia, France, Great Britain, Ireland, 
and the United States, schools for the training of teachers were much in 
the public mind during the first half of the nineteenth century. The first 
publicly supported Normal School in North America was opened at Lex 
ington, Massachusetts, in 1839. Parallel interest in teacher-training was 
evident in Upper Canada. In 1836 the Duncombe Report declared, "We 
stand upon the threshold of a new dispensation in the science of educa 
tion; . . . [we shall soon be able] to make certain and extensive provi 
sion for the support of schools for teachers and tutoresses." The McCaul 
Report of 1839 echoed the sentiment, while Lord Durham s Report advo 
cated that "both normal and model schools ought immediately to be set 
on foot." 

The Act of 1843 assumed that a Normal School would be set up, but 
someone was needed to devise and administer a new educational policy. 
Such a man was found in the Reverend Egerton Ryerson who was ap 
pointed Assistant Superintendent of Education for Canada West in 1844. 
and Chief Superintendent of Education in 1846. Ryerson s views on edu 
cation were not original, but they were strongly held and advocated with 

persistence. "By education," he wrote, "I mean not the mere acquisition of 
certain arts, or of certain branches of knowledge, but that instruction and 
discipline which qualify and dispose the subjects of it for their appro 
priate duties and employments of life, as Christians, as persons of busi 
ness, and also as members of the civil community in which they live." The 
new Superintendent had organizing and administrative ability; he could 
make long-range plans, and prepare in advance for eventualities; and he 
had the happy knack of selecting capable subordinates whom he inspired 
with intense devotion to himself and his work. 

Ryerson early recognized the fundamental importance of the teacher 
in the educational system. He was convinced that teachers should be com 
petent, that they should be persons of high character, and that they should 
be adequately paid. To elevate teaching to the rank of a profession, a 
Normal School was a necessity, and the founding of such a school became 
one of his first aims. 

In taking up his new duties, Ryerson had stipulated that he should be 
allowed to visit Europe to investigate educational systems of other lands. 
He was absent from Canada just over a year, visiting Austria, Prussia, 
France, Great Britain and Ireland. His interest in the elementary schools 
of these countries was equalled by his interest in the professional training 
of their teachers. The normal schools of Prussia, Glasgow, Edinburgh and 
Dublin impressed him greatly that of Dublin, most of all. It had, he 
wrote, "pre-eminence over all similar establishments in the British 

Ryerson s Report of 1846 recommended the establishment of the 
Normal and Model Schools in Toronto, and steps were taken to make the 
dream a reality. First of all, J. George Hodgins, chief clerk in the Educa 
tion Office, was sent to Dublin to attend the Normal School there, and to 
familiarize himself with the administration of such an institution. Then 
the National Board of Education, Dublin, was asked to nominate a head 
master for the Canadian school. John Rintoul, headmaster of the Model 
Schools, Dublin, was first suggested, but, when he found it impossible to 
leave Ireland, Thomas Jaffray Robertson, also of Dublin, was recom 
mended and appointed. Robertson crossed the Atlantic in a sailing vessel, 
and reached Toronto in September, 1847. With his wife and family he was 
soon established in a suite of rooms on the second floor of Old Government 

The second master, Henry Youle Hind, was a colourful figure. A 
scholar at Queen s College, Cambridge, and later a student for two years 
at Leipsic, he came to Canada in 1846, at the age of twenty-three. His 

specialties were mathematics and science. After serving the Normal 
School for six years, he became professor of chemistry and geology at 
Trinity College, and later led the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan explor 
ing expeditions of 1858. 

Additional teachers, on a part-time basis, were engaged to teach such 
subjects as bookkeeping, drawing, writing, and music. Among these 
special instructors was William Hind, drawing teacher and younger 
brother of the second master. Later to achieve some fame as a Canadian 
artist, William Hind introduced his students to drawing from actual ob 
jects instead of merely copying other drawings. 

The School, at the time of its opening, was well equipped with 400 
worth of books and apparatus which the headmaster had been authorized 
to purchase before leaving the old country. All in all, there was a good 
reason for Lord Elgin, who visited the school in the autumn of 1847, to 
express himself as highly pleased. 

Rev. Egerton Ryerson 

Courtesy United Church Observer 

Sir John Beverley Robinson 

It had been intended that the course of studies should emphasize 
methods of teaching, but this plan presupposed that the students pos 
sessed thorough knowledge of the subjects they would be required to 
teach. When it became clear that the students did not have such knowl 
edge, the curriculum was framed to include all the subjects taught in 
common and grammar schools. Reading, writing, grammar, composition, 
arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, history, drawing, the ele 
ments of logic, and elementary science were the chief subjects taught. 
Two hours a week were devoted to religious instruction, when ministers 
of the various denominations came to the school and taught members of 
their own faiths. 

Attending Normal School in the early years was a full-time job. 
Classes began early, ended late, and flowed over into Saturday mornings. 
The daily time-table did not end at four o clock, but called for lectures 
from six to eight in the evening as well. On Sundays the students were 
required to attend their own churches. 

Agricultural Chemistry was an additional subject begun in 1848 "to 
promote the study of Agriculture in our schools and to prepare the Stu 
dents of the Normal School for teaching it." Two prizes, of the values of 
$20 and $12, were offered by Lord Elgin, the Governor-General, for pro 
ficiency in the subject. With such encouragement, the students were given 
an intensive and practical training in Agriculture; thus the Toronto Nor 
mal School may be regarded not only as the forerunner of the Ontario 
Agricultural College, but as a prime mover in the study of agriculture in 
the elementary schools of Ontario. 

To supplement their academic training, the students were given much 
practical experience in the Model School, which came into operation in 
the renovated stables of Government House on February 21, 1848. There 
the teachers-in-training observed classes being taught and instructed 
classes themselves. Counsel and criticism were given in connection with 
these periods of practice-teaching. 

The first session of the School ran from November 1, 1847, to April 13, 
1848; the second began on May 15 and ended on October 12. A startling in 
novation occurred during the second session, when twenty-two women 
were admitted in addition to ninety-six men. Co-education was a novelty 
at the time and was viewed with some alarm, while prejudice against 
women as teachers was common. As late as 1859 a local superintendent 
of schools wrote in his official report, "Few females possess that mental 
ability and decision of character which are so essential to the successful 
Teacher . . . the framers of the School Law committed a grave error in 

authorizing females to teach at all." But once admitted, women continued 
to attend the Normal School. In 1897, an early student, Dr. Emily H. Stowe, 
organizer of the Woman Suffrage movement in Canada, wrote: "It is 
with much pleasure that I contemplate what the Normal School has done 
for the women of Canada. She was the first to open the doors to women s 
higher education; first to recognize equality in the ability of the sexes to 
compete in the halls of learning, and first to establish a system of co 
education. All hail to our Provincial Normal School!" 

Upper Canada had reason to be well pleased with the beginning its 
Normal School had made. "I know," wrote Ryerson in his Annual Report, 
"of no country in which the establishment of a normal school has been 
attended with so little delay and opposition as in Upper Canada, and in 
which its operations have been so successful in so short a time." General 
opinion throughout the Province at that time is reflected in the following 
report of a local superintendent in 1848: 

"Whenever the trustees are fortunate enough to procure a Normal 
School teacher . . . we see great energy and a spirit of emulation infused 
among the scholars. . . . Wherever I have found these teachers (and we 
have about a dozen of them in this district) the parents always tell me 
with great satisfaction that heretofore they could scarcely hire their 
children to go to school, but now they cannot hire them to stay at home. 
The value of the Normal Institution is beyond all price." 

Suddenly, however, in 1849, came word that the Normal School build 
ings were to be vacated. 


Temperance Hall 


"N THE EVENING of April 25, 1849, a body of English- 
speaking citizens in Montreal, infuriated at Lord Elgin s acceptance of the 
Rebellion Losses Bill, set fire to the parliament buildings in that city, and 
completely destroyed them. For a time doubt reigned as to the future 
headquarters of the government, a doubt that aroused much speculation 
in Toronto. As early as June there was "uncertainty of the tenure of the 
Normal School building," but the summer passed by, with no decision an 
nounced. Then came word that parliament was henceforth to meet alter 
nately in Toronto and Quebec. On October 31, 1849, the Board of Education 
was advised that the government required immediate possession of Gov 
ernment House and its premises. 

A committee was at once appointed to obtain a suitable building for 
the Normal School. At the end of three weeks they were able to report 
that they had secured the use of Temperance Hall for six months for 50. 

Temperance Hall had been erected three years earlier by the Toronto 
Temperance Reformation Society. The vice-president of the Society was 
Jesse Ketchum, Toronto philanthropist, and owner of the block of land 
bounded by Yonge, Adelaide, Bay, and Richmond Streets. Running a new 
street through his garden from Yonge to Bay Street, he had named it 
"Temperance" with the stipulation that no intoxicating liquor should be 
sold in any building erected on it. On the south side of the street, halfway 
between Yonge and Bay, he had donated a site for the erection of a build 
ing devoted to the furtherance of the Society s aims. The foundation stone 
of this Hall was laid on October 5, 1846. 

It was "a plain brick building, and fitted up internally so as to afford 
accommodation for public meetings in connection with temperance and 
other subjects." For this purpose a large Assembly Hall and a number 

of smaller rooms were provided. Evidently the building had little archi 
tectural merit, and no picture or drawing of the exterior appears to be 
in existence. 

In this makeshift accommodation, unsuitable and inconvenient, the 
Normal School was housed for nearly three years. The Model Schools, 
however, continued to occupy a portion of the Government Buildings 
presumably the stables. Because the Hall was unsuitable for a summer 
session, the vacation beginning in May, 1850, was prolonged, and during 
the next school year only one session, running from September 1 to May 
31, was held. 

Meanwhile, the Head Master, T. J. Robertson, quietly increased in 
professional reputation. From time to time he delivered addresses on 
educational topics in Toronto and throughout the Province. An account 
reprinted in The Globe of March 9, 1850, from The London Free Press tells 
of the impression he made at a meeting in that city. "The large hall of the 
Mechanics Institute was crowded with the most respectable and intelli 
gent of our inhabitants and though the lecturer descanted on this all- 
important subject [Education] for more than one hour and a half, not 
a sign of weariness manifested itself in the whole assembly; and when 
near concluding the lecturer began to apologize for the length of time he 
had detained his audience, the cries of go on, go on, showed most un 
equivocally the interest they felt in the lecture. Mr. Robertson s views of 
education are of the right stamp, and he is manifestly master of his busi 
ness. . . . We hope that the time will soon come when every common 
schoolmaster in our country will be a graduate of the Normal School." 

Public oral examinations were a feature of the School s closing cere 
monies in those days. An account of the examination at the end of one 
winter session appears in The Globe of April 18, 1850. Prominent citizens 
were in attendance, and His Excellency the Governor-General, Lord Elgin, 
came to the school on the second afternoon to present his prizes in Agri 
cultural Chemistry. "The examinations were conducted by very talented 
and energetic teachers, Messrs. Robertson and Hind, with much spirit, 
which appeared to have its effect on the pupils by the promptitude of their 
replies. In all departments the trials were most satisfactory. . . . We were 
particularly pleased with the examination of the pupils by Mr. Robertson, 
upon a subject on which he had lectured in the course of the session, i.e., 
the best mode of teaching school, the most efficient system of rewards and 
punishments, the true meaning of education, etc., on all which subjects 
Mr. Robertson appeared to have thoroughly impressed his pupils with 
very correct views acquired in his experience as a teacher. We may add 

that most of the female pupils appeared to have made quite as much pro 
gress as those of the other sex in all the branches of study, even the more 
abstruse. . . . When we reflect upon the change which would be worked 
in Canada were there in every township and concession a regularly 
trained teacher from this institution, instead of the many uneducated, 
idle, and often dissolute teachers, which at present occupy them, we 
cannot fail to take a warm interest in its success, and to aid those who 
so well perform its arduous labours, in every way in our power." 

What were the regulations for the admission of these students, whose 
training was giving such satisfaction? Applicants were required to be at 
least sixteen years of age, to be certified as of good moral character, to be 
able to read and write intelligibly, to be acquainted with the simple rules 
of arithmetic, and to declare their intention of teaching school upon 
graduation. Tuition and text-books were supplied free of charge, and each 
pupil was allowed a sum not exceeding five shillings per week to help 
defray the expense of his board. 

Students not living at home were required to board and lodge at 
supervised and recommended boarding houses. Keeping student-boarders 
meant an assured income for the landladies, and there was no dearth of 
applications for the privilege. Each landlady was required to furnish a 
certificate of good character, and to complete a form, issued for the pur 
pose, which asked for her name and address, the number and size of the 
rooms offered for rent, the number of boarders that could be accommo 
dated, and the weekly charge. The usual cost of room and board ranged at 
first from $2.25 to $3.00 per week. The masters of the school were required 
to inspect the boarding-houses and to submit weekly reports, tasks which 
proved irksome in time. "There should," complained one master, "be only 
a few houses and these respectable and commodious. There are now not 
fewer than 15 or 16 houses. . . . Altogether the system needs amend 

Rules for the conduct of the students were also drawn up by the 
Board of Education. They were expected to lead orderly and regular 
lives; to be in their lodgings every night before 9: 30; to attend their places 
of worship with strict regularity. They were to assemble in the Normal 
School each morning at nine o clock; they were "to conduct themselves 
with decorum and propriety, not merely when on the premises, but when 
coming to or leaving them." 

While classes were being taught at Temperance Hall, educational 
authorities were taking steps to provide a new and permanent building 
for the use of the school. In The Globe of September 28, 1850, we read: "A 

meeting of the Council of Public Instruction for Upper Canada was held 
in this City on Monday last, to decide on the competing designs for the 
New Normal School. . . . The Council have concluded a bargain with the 
Hon. Peter McGill for a site for the School. It is a block of seven acres 
within the City limits, and bounded by Church, Gerrard, Victoria and 
Gould Streets. The sum to be paid for it is 4,500, and at that price it is 
very cheap. Designs for the building were duly tendered for, and a large 
number given in." First choice of the Council was the design from the 
firm of Cumberland and Ridout, who were appointed architects to 
superintend the erection of the buildings. 

The site selected, known as St. James Square, was at that time on the 
fringe of the built-up portion of the city. A map of 1842 shows Bond Street 
as intended to run from Queen Street to Gerrard; had it been thus ex 
tended, it would have passed through the middle of the property. A map 
published nine years later shows a small stream running through the 
grounds and emerging at the corner of Church and Gould Streets. The 
surface of the block was partly a bog, and abounded in stumps. 

The sum of 15,000 was voted in August, 1850, "for the acquisition of 
a site and erecting a building for the Upper Canada Normal School." Ten 
ders were called, and on March 17, 1851, an agreement was signed with 
the contractors James Metcalfe, Duncan Forbes, and Alexander Wilson, 
who were "to erect, build, and completely finish buildings designed for a 
Normal and Model Schools . . . with the best description of material of 
all kinds. The timber to be free from all large Knots, Shakes, sap, and 
other imperfections ... to the entire satisfaction of the Architect ... on or 
before the first day of December next ensuing . . . [for] the sum of Eight 
Thousand seven hundred and ninety Pounds currency." 

On July 2, 1851, the ceremony of laying the corner-stone took place. 
At half-past twelve o clock, His Excellency the Governor General arrived 
at the grounds of the new school, accompanied by the Countess of Elgin. 
Conducted to the flag-bedecked platform, they stood with the assembly 
while a regimental band played God Save the Queen. A prayer by a 
clergyman, an address by Dr. Ryerson, and a reply from His Excellency 
preceded the laying of the stone, which bore on its brass plate the follow 
ing inscription: "This Institution, Erected by the Enlightened Liberality 
of Parliament, is Designed for the Instruction and Training of School 
Teachers upon Christian Principles." 

Construction did not proceed exactly as planned. On the 20th of No 
vember, 1851, the architects wrote: "The progress of the works has been 
affected by the great difficulty there has been in obtaining stone from 

Ohio which every building in Town that has had much stone work about 
it has felt. We shall however be ready for the centre roof in ten days." 
Then the contracting firm failed, and new agreements had to be drawn up 
with tinsmiths, plasterers, painters and glaziers, carpenters, and the rest. 
At last all was completed, however, and a date set for the opening. 

With eagerness, students and staff prepared to leave the temporary 
quarters on Temperance Street. 

Chapter IV 

St James Square 



. HE PUBLIC OPENING of the new Normal and Model Schools 
for Upper Canada took place on November 24, 1852. All that day, visitors 
thronged the corridors of the buildings, inspecting the Offices of the 
Education Department on the ground floor, toiling upstairs to see the 
spacious lecture rooms, admiring the large central hall or theatre, and 
walking through to the Boys and Girls Model Schools in the rear. The 
building that they saw differed in appearance from the school now stand 
ing on Gould Street, as one of the illustrations in this volume shows. It 
was then but two storeys in height, and only the south block of the present 
structure had been built. The model schools to the north were one-storey 
buildings of wood. 

"The whole [building] has been designed with a view rather to 
utility than to effect," Ryerson had stated, when the corner-stone was 
being laid, "care being taken, however, to maintain that fitness of decora 
tion by which the purpose and importance of the institution may be 
characterized and upheld." The front of the main structure was of Palla- 
dian character, having for its centre four pilasters of the full height of the 
building, with pediment surrounded by an open Doric cupola of the ex 
treme height of ninety-five feet. 

The equipment and installations were as perfect as possible. Gas and 
water had been piped in, and furnaces were established in the basement. 
The masters had been asked to estimate the amount of gas-lighting re 
quired, and had recommended conservatively enough that "for each of 
the large lecture rooms there should be a centre light of six burners and 
two lights on the platform . . . the smaller classrooms and Masters 
rooms need not be lighted." Fuel for the furnaces had been ordered: "one 
hundred and fifty cords of the best Maple and Beech fire-wood, four feet 

in length, sound and clear," to be delivered wherever required in the city 
"at the rate of fourteen shillings and eleven pence one half penny per 

Last but not least the question of lightning rods had been settled. Those 
recommended by the architects were of Detroit manufacture, and if they 
were as effective as their makers claimed, they were well worth the 50 
which they cost. For they were described as being "of Superior, carbon 
ized annealed Iron, with Zinc protectors and electro-Positive elements 
. . . the whole mounted with a solid platinum-Silver point 12 inches long 
surrounded at the base with three angular gold-plated negative magnates 
which possess the power ... of discharging the most fearful oposit ele 
ments. ... In fact they gather and silently discharge electricity from 
the atmosphere when you would scarcely suspect any being present." 

The Toronto Normal School, 1852 

Courtesy T. A. Reed, Esq. 

With the coming of evening on the opening day, a large audience 
gathered in the theatre of the building for the official opening ceremony. 
Judge S. B. Harrison, Chairman of the Council of Public Instruction, was 
in the chair, and among those on the platform were: Chief Justice John 
Beverley Robinson; Francis Hincks, the Inspector-General; Dr. John 

McCaul, President of the University of Toronto; and Dr. Ryerson. Prayer 
having been said, Chief Justice (later Sir) John Beverley Robinson de 
livered the principal address. "It would be as wise," he stated, "to reject 
the use of Railways because an occasional train runs off the track as to 
hesitate to give education to the multitude for fear it may in some in 
stances be perverted as no doubt it sometimes is, to bad purposes." 

Robinson s reference to railways was topical, for it was in the pre 
vious month that rails for the Northern Road had been unloaded from 
three steamers and a schooner at the Queen s Wharf; a track had been 
laid along the wharf and a locomotive placed on it. After a wood fire had 
been kindled and the warning bell rung, the locomotive moved "slowly 
at first," as The Globe reported, "but presently with more speed. Amid 
the cheers of the crowd she moves along the wharf, the steam whistle 
waking the echoes of the Bay." 

The other speakers Hincks, McCaul, and Ryerson expressed their 
satisfaction with the building, and paid tribute to the importance of the 
School in the educational life of Upper Canada. 

The newly opened institution was more than the Normal School. It 
was the centre of the publicly supported school system of the Province. 
One of its purposes was to house the Education Office, which had been 
moved from Kingston to Cobourg in 1844, and from Cobourg to Toronto 
in 1846. In Toronto its first location was on Bay Street, one door south 
of Wellington Street, but a move was made in 1849 to the Albany Cham 
bers at the corner of King and York Streets. Now in 1852, it was estab 
lished in the Normal School, its home for sixty years. 

Housed in the new building, too, was the Educational Depository 
a provincial store handling educational books, maps, and supplies, for 
sale to teachers, school boards, and libraries. Books to the value of 
$239,795, or about $12,000 a year, in addition to maps and other equipment, 
were imported for the Education Department in the twenty years after 

Two rooms in the school were devoted to the purposes of a museum. 
By 1857, this collection contained "School furniture and apparatus, casts 
of antique statues, copies of paintings," amounting in all to over two 
thousand objects. Correspondence was carried on with the British 
Museum as to the best method of arrangement and display. The museum 
was visited by the students at specified hours, and was open to the gen 
eral public without charge. 

The grounds surrounding the School received early attention. The 
area was levelled and drained, and plots were set apart for a botanical 
garden, a fruit and vegetable garden, and a small arboretum for foreign 
and domestic shrubs; two acres were reserved for agricultural experi 
ments. William Mundie, of Hamilton, was placed in charge of the grounds, 
and was able to report in the autumn of 1853 that the grass had done 
remarkably well, that the shrubs and trees were well established, and 
that the show of annual and other summer flowers had made the grounds 
gay during the whole season. 

In 1853, the year following the move to new quarters, Henry Hind 
was succeeded as second master by the Rev. William Ormiston. Ormiston, 
then thirty-two years of age, was a graduate of Victoria College, a minis 
ter of the Presbyterian Church, and local superintendent of schools at 
Bowmanville. He remained on the staff of the Normal School only four 
years, but he left a deep impression on the minds of the students. "His 
utterances," one student recorded, "repeated one day, I could reproduce 
verbatim the next. ... As a teacher he created within me a thirst for 
teaching that can never be quelled." 

Dr. Ryerson, busy man though he was, continued to take a deep inter 
est in every phase of the School s activity. "It has, of course, fallen to me," 
he wrote, "to originate and devise everything connected with the estab 
lishment and location of the Institution; the appointment of officers and 
their duties; all the details of its government and system of management, 
and measures for improving its efficiency and usefulness. . . . Though I 
have taken no part in the teaching . . . the Masters have . . . had almost 
daily consultations with me, respecting occurrences and matters con 
nected with the Institution." In this close association with the School, 
Ryerson was ably assisted by his Senior Clerk, J. George Hodgins. 

Pioneering in co-education brought its problems as well as its praise. 
In 1853 the introduction of the rule that students of opposite sexes should 
not communicate with each other in any way brought a vigorous protest 
from the male students. A meeting of the men was held in August of that 
year and a strongly worded resolution was adopted expressing "utter 
contempt at such outrageously inconsistent, and needless restrictions" 
which were "entirely derogatory to that which every man ought to 
possess, viz., common sense." "We . . . cannot conscientiously subject our 
selves to the discipline and regulations of this Institution," the protest 
continued, "until our social rights, liberty, freedom, and position as stu 
dents are restored and acknowledged." Ryerson was equally determined 
that the rule should be enforced, and three days later the students, realiz- 

ing that "the intention of the rule" was "entirely different from what we 
had thought," wrote regretting the unbecoming terms in which their 
resolution had been couched. 

But such a rule, as might be expected, was broken from time to time. 
One luckless youth, Robertson reported, had "left at the steps of the hall 
door of Mrs. Walker s boarding house occupied by female students, a note 
addressed to one of the young ladies ... a mere scrap of paper contain 
ing some very silly love verses." The Head Master recommended suspen 
sion in this case for the remainder of the session, as the young man s 
conduct "was not the result of temporary excitement or mere thought 
lessness but was a cool and deliberate infringement of rules." 

A young Scottish student exercised more discretion. Taking his seat 
in the lecture room for the first time, he naturally glanced at the young 
ladies who occupied the opposite end of the room. There to his pleasure 
and surprise he recognized a former schoolmate from far away Scotland. 
Restraining his first impulse to defy the rule, he sought advice from his 
fellow-students who suggested that he ask Mr. Robertson for permission 
to speak to her. The Head Master agreed, on the condition that their 
conversation should take place in his presence. Alas for rules! When the 
young lady entered the room, the young man addressed her in Gaelic, and 
she replied in the same language. Robertson, who enjoyed a joke, had the 
somewhat rare privilege of enjoying one upon himself. 

Meanwhile the work of the school went on, and its influence became 
apparent in improved teaching and in higher salaries for teachers. In 
1846, Ryerson had estimated the average salary per teacher per year at 
29. Little wonder that schools were then often depending for instruction 
on those "whose Physical Disabilities, from age, render this mode of 
obtaining a livelihood the only one suited to their Decaying Energies." 
Six or seven years later, salaries ranging from 75 to 100 were offered for 
teachers from the Normal School. Trustees were prompt to observe the 
superior efficiency of such instructors. "There is," wrote a local super 
intendent, "a greater improvement in our schools last year than in any 
preceding year . . . this owing to the superior efficiency of the teacher 
employed . . . [which efficiency] is principally owing to the Normal 

So valuable did this training appear, that a decision was made to train 
teachers for grammar or secondary schools as well. For this purpose, in 
1857, a Model Grammar School, costing $39,269, was erected north of the 
Model Schools, and facing Gerrard Street. The project was never a suc- 

cess. Few students attended, the opinion being that the holding of a 
university degree was sufficient evidence in itself of ability to teach in a 
grammar school. The institution closed in 1863. 

The year 1860 brought the visit to Canada of the Prince of Wales, 
later King Edward VII. At half past three o clock on September 11, amid 
drenching rain, the royal carriage splashed from the Horticultural Gar 
dens (which the Prince had inaugurated by planting a maple tree) to 
the Normal School building, where the distinguished guest received, and 
replied to, an address of welcome in the presence of educational officials, 
teachers-in-training, and the children of the Model Schools. The decora 
tion and illumination of the school building on this occasion may well 
have outshone all similar efforts in the city. Above the cupola waved the 
Union Jack upon a 90-foot flag-pole; within the cupola, beneath a crimson 
canopy, was a bust of Queen Victoria, illuminated by globes equipped 
with reflectors, so as to reflect the profile of Her Majesty. The entire front 
of the building was liberally festooned with crowns, coats of arms 
mottoes, the Prince s plumes, and shields. In the windows were no less 
than 1,200 transparencies, chiefly of the Rose, Shamrock, Thistle, and 
Maple Leaf. 

Thomas Jaffray Robertson served the school with sound scholarship 
and rugged force of character for nineteen years. It was a period when 
knowledge and skills were synonymous with education. "He was a stal 
wart who had little to do with the fine distinctions of psychology and 
child study," wrote David Fotheringham, a student of the twelfth session, 
"but much to do with the foundation principles of grammatical analysis 
and synthesis, the immutable laws of the phenomena of physical geog 
raphy, and the erection of a clearly defined skeleton of ancient and 
modern history on which, at their leisure, his students could build the 
full, symmetrical story of man s life, labours, and progress on the earth." 

During his headmastership at the Normal School, a system of object 
teaching was introduced in the Model Schools. Advocated by Pestalozzi 
and adapted for English schools by the Mayos of London, this system of 
instruction by "things not words" attracted the special attention of 
visitors. "Having heard of the perfection to which these lessons had been 
advanced in the Model School," reported the Commissioner of Public 
Schools from Baltimore, Maryland, about 1862, "I was desirous of witness 
ing the exercise. ... A picture [was] chosen upon which a camel and 
cow were represented. Questions were asked relating to the class of 
animals to which the camel belongs, the character and habits of those 

animals; in what they were alike, in what unlike; the peculiarities of the 
cow and its uses; those of the camel and the countries in which it lived. 
The little pupils described with surprising accuracy, the qualities that 
adapted the camel to the climate and conditions of the countries it in 
habits, its use in bearing burdens and in crossing deserts, the peculiarity 
of its stomach, in the cells of which the animal carries water for several 
days, the adaptation of the cushion-like arrangement of its foot to the 
sand or dust of the desert. The answers were quickly given, and if there 
was any hesitation in the class it was removed by the encouraging voice 
of the teacher." 

The same visitor observed the recitation of the class in history. It 
was so well done that he asked the teacher what text-book she used. She 
replied that she used all the books in history she could procure, and from 
them prepared herself for a conversational lecture with the class. "The 
whole system of the school," concluded the Commissioner, "seemed to me 
to be a sort of conversational story telling process, in which the minds of 
the hearers were kept in continual excitement, and the interest prolonged 
by their being made parties in the free interchange of thought." 

Another visitor was Edward A. Sheldon of Oswego, N. Y. So im 
pressed was he, in 1860, with the system of object teaching in the Model 
School of Toronto, that he returned home determined to introduce a 
similar system in American schools. His efforts resulted in the establish 
ment of the famous Oswego Normal School, through the influence of 
which, Pestalozzian methods were carried to all parts of the continent. 

During the winter of 1865-66, Robertson was granted leave of absence 
on account of failing health. He died on September 26, 1866, at the age of 
sixty-two after nineteen years of useful service to Upper Canada. He was 
buried in St. James Cemetery, Toronto. 

Chapter V 

Years of Transition 


R. JOHN HERBERT SANGSTER, Mathematical and Science 
Master in the Normal School since 1858, succeeded T. J. Robertson as 
principal. Dr. Sangster was thoroughly acquainted with the institution, 
having been a student of the first session, and a teacher in the Model 
School. A prodigous worker, he had taught, had prepared text-books on 
Algebra, Arithmetic, Chemistry, and Natural History, had gained the 
degree of Master of Arts, and had qualified as a medical doctor, before 
becoming Head Master of the Normal School at the age of thirty-five. His 
portrait reproduced in this booklet was said to be very like him when it 
was painted in 1897, but not like the man who served as principal from 
1866-1871, when those students who were fond of mathematics felt safe, 
but those who were not, were in dread of being struck by his lightning. 
He was young, intense, and persevering, working hard himself, and 
making his students work. But he was held in high esteem, and his classes 
retained pleasant recollections of his lectures. 

The students entering Normal School during the fifties and sixties 
were none too well prepared, and the staff spent more time teaching 
students what they were to teach than how they were to teach it. "It is 
conceded by all who have devoted any attention to the subject," wrote 
Dr. Sangster, "that to teach well one must be possessed of adequate 
knowledge; in a word, must be well-informed; and as more than nine- 
tenths of those who apply for admission to Normal School do not possess 
anything like the amount of information and general knowledge which 
the advancing spirit of the age very properly demands of those who 
would become Educators of youth, the Normal School Masters are com 
pelled to Supplement, by Lectures on the different Branches of Study 
embraced in an ordinary English education, the early training or want 
of training, of those who enter its walls." 

Two sessions were still held each year from January to June, and 

from August to December. Girls over sixteen years of age, and men over 
eighteen years, were enrolled upon presenting certificates of moral char 
acter, and upon passing the entrance examinations held on the third and 
fourth days after the opening of the session. Upon an average, one student 
in ten was sent back for further preparation. Term tests were conducted 
every six weeks, and those falling behind in their work were required 
to withdraw. About four-fifths of those admitted reached the final exam 
inations, and of this group about five-sixths obtained certificates. Students 
were classified in two divisions senior and junior. In the senior group 
were graduates of a previous session at the School, and a few newcomers 
of superior attainments. Observation and practice teaching were done in 
the Model School, each student being graded from one, implying great 
excellence, to six, representing complete failure. 

The Normal School buildings at this time comprised three sections. 
To the south, facing Gould Street, was the main front block, topped by 
its cupola, and backed by its theatre or assembly hall. To the north was a 
centre block,one storey in height, housing the elementary Model Schools 
for girls and boys. North of that again, was the Model Grammar School, 
a rectangular structure with the longer axis running north and south, 
and having two small wings projecting to the east and west. From each of 
these wings extended a long wooden shed built to provide play space for 
Model School pupils. 

With the closing of the Model Grammar School in 1863, the upper 
storey of its building was occupied by Normal students, while the lower 
storey may have accommodated an overflow of pupils from the elemen 
tary Model Schools. In 1871 the Model Schools in the centre were en 
larged, becoming a building 180 feet by 77 feet. When this extra space 
became available in November, the Model School pupils were transferred 
to it from the north block, which was then devoted to the sole use of the 
Normal School. The more imposing south block, facing Gould Street, 
continued to house the Education Department, the Depository, and the 

After Confederation, a change occurred in the control of public 
buildings. In 1869 responsibility for maintenance of the Normal School 
property passed to the Ontario Department of Public Works. When its 
architect examined the buildings he reported that the roofs were leaking, 
the plank walks were in a rotting condition, and the buildings were gener 
ally out of repair; the buildings had been too far distant from the seat of 
government to receive the attention constantly required. Steps were 
taken to put the property in shape, and adequate funds for maintenance 

were arranged. In all, the capital expenditure for the Education Depart 
ment and the Normal and Model Schools from 1867 to 1904 amounted to 

Although Dr. Sangster was discharging his duties to the general 
satisfaction of the students, staff, and Education Department, he decided 
in 1871 to resign his post as principal, and to devote his life to the prac 
tice of medicine. "My work," he wrote, "appears to have lost much of the 
charm for me which it heretofore possessed . . . my duties . grow 

irksome and wearing." Sangster s resignation "was a loss to the teachers 
and the whole Province," wrote one inspector of schools. "His lectures on 
Education and methods of teaching, when he was Head Master, were 
more than worth the time and expense of the session." 

Dr. H. W. Davies, clergyman and grammarian, was appointed princi 
pal when Dr. Sangster relinquished the position. A graduate of Trinity 
College and former headmaster of the Cornwall Grammar School, Dr. 
Davies, at the age of thirty-two, had come to the Normal School as English 
Master in 1866. An authoritarian, the new Head Master with his red hair 
and quick temper to match, was a memorable figure to students of the 
day. In questions of discipline he appears to have been influenced in part 
by a desire to allow students greater freedom, and in part by a sturdy 
determination to enforce the rules laid down by the Board twenty-five 
years earlier. But his keen interest in his students as individuals and his 
essential kindness caused graduates of the School in after years to recall 
"his genial smile and pleasant countenance" with warm regard. 

One of the students attending the forty-ninth session from January 
to June 1873, was Robert Barr. After teaching in Kent and Essex counties, 
and working on the editorial staff of The Detroit Free Press, Barr moved 
to England, where he pursued the profession of novelist. In one of his 
books, The Measure of the Rule, he pictured life at the Toronto Normal 
School in the seventies. So thinly did he disguise his descriptions of 
people and events, that readers familiar with the School readily linked 
actual names with the fictitious ones used in the novel. The book is 
pleasantly old-fashioned in style, and is somewhat melodramatic in its 
ending. To anyone interested in Toronto of yesteryear and the Normal 
School of the time, it can be unreservedly recommended. 

Dr. Davies principalship extended over thirteen years, and during 
that time the school faced many problems. The period was one of transi 
tion. Dr. J. M. McCutcheon in his Public Education in Ontario (1941) 
observes that the pioneer period in the provincial schools was character 
ized by emphasis upon the acquisition of knowledge by the pupil, chiefly 

through memory. In the early seventies, the same author notes, there 

began the second stage in the development of elementary education 

a stage when the main emphasis shifted to methods of instruction. This 

new interest in methodology came at a time when high-school graduates 

entering Normal School were much better educated than those of earlier 

years, and stood, therefore, less in need of academic instruction than in 

the days of Robertson and Sangster. Critics called upon the Normal 

School to reduce its emphasis upon academic work and to increase its 

attention to methods of teaching. Among these critics was one of the 

School s own graduates of the fourth session, Dr. J. A. McLellan, an 

Inspector of High Schools. He was sent to visit schools in Massachusetts 

and New York in 1882 to inquire into methods of teacher education. 

On his return, he drew up a number of recommendations emphasizing 

the importance of increased professional training. He became Director 

of Normal Schools for several years, and his influence increased the 

efficiency of methods in Toronto and in Ottawa, where a Normal School 

had been opened in 1875. 

A re-organization of the training of teachers had taken place in On 
tario in 1877, when a system of local Model Schools had been established 
throughout the Province. In subsequent years, teachers attended a local 
Model School, taught for a year or more, and then proceeded to the Nor 
mal School in Ottawa or Toronto. The student body of the Normal School 
thus became a group of experienced teachers. 

Running parallel to the progress of the Normal School through the 
years had been the progress of the Model School. The Boys School 
opened in 1848 under Charles Lowey, who died a few months later. Suc 
ceeding Head Masters were: Archibald McCallum (1848-58) ; David 
Fotheringham (1858); James Carlyle (1858-71); James L. Hughes (1871- 
74); William Scott (1874-82); Charles Clarkson (1882-86). Of these men, 
Dr. Carlyle (a relative of Thomas Carlyle, the Sage of Chelsea) became 
Mathematical Master of the Normal School from 1871 to 1893; James L. 
Hughes, a graduate of the Normal School in 1865, became Chief Inspector 
of Public Schools in Toronto at the age of twenty-nine, a position which 
he held for many years; William Scott became fifth principal of Toronto 
Normal School (1898-1918). The Girls School opened in 1852, with 
Mrs. Dorcas Clark as Head Mistress. Upon her retirement in 1865, the 
position was held by Miss M. Adams (1865-66), Mrs. Martha Cullen 
(1867-84), and Miss M. T. Scott (1884-1900). 

For the help and encouragement given by these leaders and their 
associates in the Model Schools, the graduates of the teacher-training 

school expressed over the years their grateful thanks. One headmaster, 
James L. Hughes, however, had this to say: "I was trained to believe that 
my supreme duty was to criticize destructively the teaching of the Normal 
School students while they were teaching their practice lessons in the 
Model School. I was told to point out to them the errors they made as the 
best means of making them good teachers. I have no sympathy with such 
a course now, and I am glad that I -saw the great evils of this method of 
training before I was appointed Inspector of Schools."* 

This chapter of transition would be incomplete without mention of 
the passing of Dr. Egerton Ryerson from the educational scene. The 
Chief Superintendent retired in 1876, the year in which authority in 
educational matters was transferred to a Minister of the Crown. Dr. 
Ryerson lived to enjoy his retirement for six years, his death occurring 
February 19, 1882. Seven years later, when a monument was unveiled in 
his memory on the grounds of the Normal School, the Minister of Educa 
tion of the day spoke thus of Ryerson: "With a patriotism which no man 
could fail to appreciate, with a tenacity of purpose which no difficulty 
could daunt, he devoted his life to one purpose, the establishment of a 
school system which could fully meet the wants of a free, strong, and 
progressive people." 

Pierce, L.: Fifty Years of Public Service, A Life of James L. Hughes, p. 66. 
S. B. Gundy, Oxford University Press, Toronto, 1924. Quoted by kind permis 
sion of Dr. Pierce. 

Chapter VI 

Turn of the Century 


WE MAY, THEREFORE, as the Alumni of this institution 
[Toronto Normal School] . . . rejoice to-night that its influence has been 
felt in every corner of Ontario, and possibly of the Dominion, and as 
loyalty to the country was always an essential part of our instruction, I 
now propose that we begin the proceedings of this evening by drinking to 
the health of Her Gracious Majesty, Queen Victoria. I give The Queen 
God bless Her. " 

As the speaker, the Hon. George W Ross, Minister of Education 
raised his glass, a hundred schoolmen of the Province rose in their places 
in the banquet room of the Rossin House, Toronto, to honour their sover 
eign. The orchestra struck up the National Anthem, and the fiftieth birth 
day party of the Toronto Normal School was well under way. It was the 
night of November 2, 1897, and the Jubilee Banquet was the concluding 
event of an anniversary programme that had extended over three days. 
Distinguished graduates were out in force. The Minister of Education 
who graced the chair was a student of 69; John Millar, Deputy Minister 
of Education, had attended in 62; vice-chairmen of the banquet Princi 
pal Archibald MacMurchy of Jarvis Collegiate and Professor J. G. Hume 
of the University of Toronto were representing respectively the students 
attending before and after 1875. 

Col. Sam Hughes, M.P., 68, responded to the toast of "Army, Navy, 
and Volunteers." Principal MacMurchy, 55, proposed "Higher Educa 
tion," to which Dr. S. P. Robins, 52, Principal of McGill Normal School, 
made reply. Among alumni acknowledging Dr. J. H. Sangster s toast to 
"The Ex-Students" was Inspector John Dearness, 71, who, in 1947, is 
still keenly interested in the educational life of the Province. 

The Jubilee celebration clearly demonstrated the affection of former 

students for their Normal School. Opening with a service in the Metro 
politan Church, at which the Rev. Dr. E. H. Dewart a student of the 
first session was preacher, the programme also included two afternoons 
of reminiscent addresses, and a musical evening. Careful record was kept 
of all events, and an account of the celebration published in book form 
provides a mine of fact regarding the School s early years. 

Thomas Kirkland was principal at this time. An Irishman by birth, 
he had graduated from the Dublin Normal School before coming to 
Canada in 1854. After teaching in public and grammar schools, and 
securing his M. A. from the University of Toronto, he became science 
master of the Normal School in 1871. Upon the resignation of Dr. Davies 
in December, 1884, Mr. Kirkland became principal; at the same time, Dr. 
James Carlyle, head master of the Boys Model School, became his assist 
ant. "As now constituted," reads the Minister s Report of 1885, "these 
two teachers do the work formerly done by three without any deteriora 
tion as to efficiency or management." 

What was memorable about Mr. Kirkland? Records remind us of 
his industry, of his text-books, of his knowledge of botany and chemistry, 
but the unanimous reply of former students is: "His kindness!" Former 
members of his staff say simply, "He was our friend." 

The school itself was not at a high point in its history. The shift of 
emphasis from academic work to professional study had thinned the in 
tellectual fare. New subjects in the elementary curriculum subjects 
such as nature study, manual training, household science, and hygiene- 
found little or no place in the Normal School programme. The practice of 
lecturing to a hundred or more students ranged on tiered seats in a large 
gallery classroom militated against inspirational teaching. 

Dr. J. H. Putman, late Chief Inspector of Schools, Ottawa, who 
attended in 1887, describes the course in his memoirs as flat and uninter 
esting. E. E. Gibbs, former principal of Chesley Avenue School, London, 
and a student in the autumn of 1890, has more favourable memories: "I 
found that I was a much better teacher after my term at Toronto Normal, 
and shall never forget the help and inspiration I received while there. I 
liked the friendly talks about how to manage a school, and the casual 
remark, Do what we tell you, here, and when you get a school of your 
own, do as you please. I have always followed that advice! One day when 
Dr. Carlyle was taking up School Management with us he asked Ward, 
the humorist of the class, a question. Ward hesitated a long time, and the 
Doctor remarked, If you do not answer, Mr. Ward, the class will think 

you do not know. Ward replied, Dr. Carlyle, if I do answer, they will 
know that I do not know. " 

The Model School was in its heyday in the nineties. Dr. J. A. Mc- 
Lellan, in a departmental report, states that the practice school "is, I 
believe, the best we have had in the history of the Normal School." Dr. 
Putman has this to say: "Angus Mclntosh, the headmaster, and Miss Scott, 
the headmistress, were shining examples of what elementary school 
teachers could and should be. Their poise, their naturalness of manner, 
the ease with which they controlled, their skill in questioning, the way 
they used the pupils answers, the little use they made of text-books made 
young teachers feel that, after all, there was much to be learned about the 
art of teaching."* 

In 1885, the training of kindergarten teachers became a feature of the 
Normal School programme. The first kindergarten in Toronto had been 
established in 1882 under the enthusiastic leadership of Dr. J. L. Hughes, 
Chief Inspector of the City s public schools. Miss Bessie Hailman was the 
first Kindergarten Directress in the Normal School, 1885-86; Miss C. M. C. 
Hart was the second, 1886-92; and Miss Mary E. Macintyre was the third, 

Requirements for entrance to Normal School remained substantially 
unchanged for thirty years after 1877, and included an academic second 
class certificate, a session at a County Model School, and one year s suc 
cessful teaching experience. From 1875 to 1890, it was possible to qualify 
for a first class certificate by attending two sessions at Normal School. 
After 1890, the Provincial School of Pedagogy, which was organized to 
give professional training to teachers of secondary schools, took over the 
granting of first class certificates; this institution admitted students with 
Senior Leaving certificates or university degrees. The School of Pedagogy 
met in the theatre of the Toronto Normal School, and used its Model 
School, until the training of teachers for secondary schools passed to the 
Ontario Normal College, Hamilton, in 1897. 

The history of the Toronto Normal School continued to be written in 
brick and mortar. In 1882, changes were made in the east end of the front 
building (partly vacant since the Depository had been discontinued) for 
the accommodation of the Ontario School of Art and Design, which had 
occupied rooms on King Street West since its beginning in 1876. In 1888, a 
second storey was added to the centre building which housed the Model 

* Putman, J. H.: Fifty Years at School, pp. 10, 11. Quoted by kind permission of 
the publishers, Clarke, Irwin and Company Limited. 

Schools. At the same time the old play sheds were removed a great 
improvement from "an ornamental and sanitary point of view." In 1892, 
the contract was let for the construction of the iron fence around the 

The greatest change in the buildings took place, however, in 1896, 
when a third storey was added to the south block. This addition, involving 
the loss of the old cupola and the substitution of the present tower, pro 
vided spacious halls connected by archways on the third floor, for use as 
art and picture galleries. Another alteration occurred in 1902, when the 
north building, then housing the Normal School proper, was enlarged by 
wings on both east and west sides, each two storeys in height. The length 
of this building now ran east and west, instead of north and south. 

Toronto Normal and Model Schools, with play sheds, 1860 

Courtesy T. A. Reed, Esq. 

Thomas Kirkland died at the close of 1898, just as he was preparing 
an address of welcome for the incoming class of the new year. He was 
succeeded by William Scott, B. A., a graduate of the School in 1868, and its 
vice-principal since 1894. Born in Scotland, the new principal had come to 
Canada as a boy, had begun teaching at the age of sixteen, and had later 

served on the staff of the Boys Model School, first as teacher and then as 
headmaster. Graduating from the University of Toronto, he taught in the 
Ottawa Normal School for twelve years before his transfer to Toronto on 
the retirement of Dr. Carlyle. 

William Scott was a man of dignified and kindly manner. He was a 
careful organizer and possessed a strong and orderly mind. By act and 
precept he implanted in his students the principle, "A well-taught school 
is a well-disciplined school." The discipline which he advocated was to be 
secured through the teacher s personality and through the stimulus of 
good teaching. "When minds are busy there is no time for noisy mischief." 
In his opinion, character was based upon integrity, and integrity gave 
power to meet all situations without fear. "To keep an engagement 
punctually is not a small matter," he said, "for it gives me confidence that 
I can do what I will do." 

Mr. Scott s methods of teaching were particularly effective. He based 
the study of botany and geography on well-planned field excursions, 
which his students recall with special pleasure. He was an authority on 
the identification of Canadian plants, and an enthusiastic collector of 
specimens of Canadian flora. His approach to elementary arithmetic was 
a revelation to young teachers who had floundered and failed in the use of 
older methods. "Make an end to juggling with rules and symbols; base 
your methods in teaching number on the child s natural delight in con 
crete things," was one of his favourite admonitions. 

Though strict in discipline, Mr. Scott took a sympathetic interest in 
the welfare of his students. From one teacher comes a memory of help 
graciously given with a difficult lesson assignment; from another, treas 
ured words of kind but sturdy counsel from Mr. Scott upon the occasion of 
her father s death. Remembered, too, is the hospitality of the Principal 
and his wife, when they entertained the students to tea each year at their 
pleasant home. 

Manual Training and Household Science were attracting the attention 
of educationists at the turn of the century. In Principal Scott s report in 
1901, we read: "Rooms are required for Manual Training and Domestic 
Science. No attempt is now made to make the students acquainted with 
the rudiments of Manual Training. The ladies receive training in House 
hold Science; but the room they use, which is at a distance from the 
school is quite inadequate to accommodate so large a number with com 
fort." A year later, Inspector Leake reported that manual training "is 
now in progress at each of the three Normal Schools Toronto, Ottawa, 
and London." (The London Normal School had been opened in 1900.) 

Miss Nina Ewing and Mrs. Emma MacBeth were early instructors in 
Household Science and Needlework. James H. Wilkinson was the first 
instructor in Manual Training. 

In 1903, the long-standing practice of holding two sessions of the 
Normal School each year came to an end, and one session extending from 
September to June became the rule. The Minister s Report for 1904 points 
out that the lengthened session was designed to provide opportunity not 
only for more practice teaching, but for review of academic work as well. 

In 1908, Dr. F. W. Merchant was appointed Inspector of Normal 
Schools, and, under his leadership the next eight years brought a complete 
re-organization of teacher-training for the elementary schools of Ontario. 
In the first place, most of the Model Schools, which had prepared teachers 
for third-class certificates, were abolished. Three new Normal Schools 
were opened in 1908 at Hamilton, Peterborough, and Stratford and a 
fourth, at North Bay, in 1909. The staff of the Toronto Normal School pro 
vided two principals for the Stratford School, in the persons of W. H. 
Elliott and Dr. S. Silcox; A. C. Casselman, also of Toronto, became 
principal in North Bay. 

The Normal Schools were now training some students without 
previous experience in teaching, and a more extended course in observa 
tion and practice teaching became necessary. For some years classes were 
divided into two sections, one for those students with experience, and the 
other for those who had not previously been teachers. The Model School 
no longer provided all the practice required in Toronto, and arrangements 
were made for the use of selected rooms in the city system. Rural class 
rooms were also added to the practice schedule. At first the rural schools 
were used only for a short time in the spring, but later they were affiliated 
with the Normal School for the whole session. 

Methods of instruction in the Normal School also changed. The lectur 
ing of large classes came to an end; the School was divided into forms, 
and additional masters were appointed. "The theory now is," wrote Dr. 
Merchant in the Minister s Report of 1915, ; that every Normal School 
master s lesson should be a model of method in presentation as well as a 
type of the proper selection of subject matter." Less encouragement was 
given to laying down definite and detailed lines of procedure, and more 
emphasis was placed upon the discussion of principles and their applica 
tion to concrete educational problems. 

The publication of a series of manuals, in the various subject fields, 
for the guidance of teachers and teachers-in-training, was begun around 

1910. These manuals were ably written, and had an immediate effect that 
was favourable in the Normal Schools. Over the years, however, despite 
revision, they tended to limit professional reading, and to narrow the 
outlook of the students, if not of the staff itself. 

In 1914 a new department for training Kindergarten-Primary teach 
ers was established in the Toronto Normal School. Its purpose was to 
bring into closer relationship, the Kindergarten and the other grades of 
the public school, Miss Mary E. Macintyre was senior instructor in Kin 
dergarten Principles in this course, and associated with her as assistant 
instructors were Misses Ellen Cody, Lilian B. Harding, Elizabeth R. 
Cringan, M. Maude Watterworth, and Mabel E. Hodgins. Following Miss 
Macintyre s retirement in 1932, Miss Hodgins became fourth Kinder 
garten Directress of the Model School and instructor of the Kindergarten- 
Primary course. 

The years of the First Great War brought their changes in the halls 
of the Normal School. The honour rolls of both Normal and Model Schools 
lengthened as the months passed by. Towards the close of the war, 
Principal Scott s health failed, and in September, 1918, Dr. S. J. Radcliffe, 
Principal of London Normal School, came to Toronto as Acting Principal. 

Chapter VII 

Between Two Wars 

usually known as the Normal School, the School itself had very early 
been relegated to premises in the rear. The towered south block was 
occupied by the Education Offices, by the Depository, by an art gallery, 
by a museum, by the Art School, by the Ontario Historical Society, and 
after the Department of Education had moved to the Parliament Build 
ings in 1912 by the Workmen s Compensation Board. In 1919, the Normal 
School, sadly crowded in the north block where it had been since 1863, 
secured two rooms in the south building for its own use. The camel s foot 
was in the tent. Two years later, when the Compensation Board and the 
College of Art both moved to new quarters, the teachers-in-training fell 
heir to the space vacated. By 1921, the School s front door was its own. 

The students were coming into their own in another way. Dr. Rad- 
cliffe s experience as principal, first of London Collegiate, and later of 
London Normal School, had acquainted him with the hopes and enthus 
iasms of young people. During his principalship the view that Normal 
students were special persons required to act in a special way underwent 
a change. The social life of the School increased in importance. Student 
parties were held even dances. Visits to other Normal School centres 
were arranged with special programmes of literary and athletic events. 

"Be not the first by whom the new are tried." The Normal School 
heeded this caution in the matter of athletic costumes. Girls uniforms 
changed from pleated skirts to bloomers, from middies to sweaters, from 
sweaters with sleeves to sweaters without sleeves, to the accompaniment 
of much complaint from Mrs. Grundy, who fought every inch of her re 
treat. But just as the promenade gave way to the dance, so the School 
moved closer to the accepted patterns of the day in secondary school and 

Miss Nina Ewing was formally appointed consultant and adviser to 
the girls in attendance in 1919, when a similar appointment was made 
in each of the Normal Schools. Miss Ewing had been with the school 
since 1902; she was now called Dean of Women. The duties of this office 
were discharged, in later years, by Miss Mabel E. Hay (1931-44) ; Mrs. 
F. G. Russell (1944-46); and Mrs. E. H. McKone. 

The end of the First Great War brought the "Soldier Year" to the 
school in 1919-20. Some eighty men with service in the forces enrolled, 
most of them in the regular course, although a group specialized in manual 
training. Great though the change was from their experience overseas, 
the service-men completed a thoroughly successful year, and now hold 
responsible positions in the schools of the Province. At the annual re 
unions which they held for many years, members of this group were 
proud to have, as their guest of honour, Dr. H. J. Cody, who was Minister 
of Education when they were admitted to Normal School, and who took 
a keen interest in their progress. 

Candidates for First-Class certificates were once more included in 
the Normal Schools enrolment after 1919, as the Faculties of Education in 
Toronto and Kingston were abolished in 1920 to be superseded by the 
Ontario College of Education. Fifty-seven First-Class students came to 
Toronto in 1920-21, with 178 candidates for the Second-Class certificate. 
To provide opportunities for practice with high school classes, a Fifth 
Form was added to the Model School. 

Through these years, Dr. Radcliffe gave cheerful and inspiring 
leadership to the School. His love of English literature had its influence 
on all his students. "Have you seen an apple orchard in the spring?" How 
often the opening line of that poem stirred new wonder in the beauty of 
verse and blossoms! "Pink buds pouting at the light, crumpled petals baby 
white! Just to touch them a delight, in the spring." All over the Province, 
graduates catching the whiff of lilac, went down with him "to Kew in 
lilac time." Lucky were the students who travelled the old red Readers 
with Dr. Radcliffe. His relation to his classes is best expressed by a short 
editorial in the students paper, The Pedagogian, of April, 1924. "We are 
delighted to have Dr. Radcliffe with us again. Although we have dozens of 
the very finest teachers, we miss Dr. Radcliffe if he is out of our sight for 
five minutes." 

The experiment of a two-year course in the Normal School began 
with the class of 1927-28. Increasing enrolments, coming to a peak with 
671 at Toronto in 1924-25, led to a decision to increase the length of train 
ing. The second year was added, not to follow immediately upon the first, 

but to come after an interval of practical experience. "This is only an 
au revoir," wrote Dr. Radcliffe in his message to the students of 1928, "we 
expect to see you not later than four years from next September. 1 

Dr. Radcliffe did not live to welcome the second-year group on their 
return. His sudden death on September 2, 1929, was a shock to staff mem 
bers and former students, in whose hearts his memory is ever green. "His 
life was gentle, and the elements so mixed in him that Nature might 
stand up and say to all the world, This was a man! 

David Whyte, B. A., B. Paed., Principal of the Hamilton Normal 
School, was transferred to Toronto to succeed Dr. Radcliffe. Mr. Whyte 
was no stranger to the School, having served it as science master for 
seventeen years before his appointment to Hamilton in 1926. A thorough 
teacher, an able speaker, and a competent administrator, Mr. Whyte gave 
of his best in the direction of the School for the next nine years. It was not 
an easy period, for economic depression, a surplus of teachers, and the 
return of the second-year group, combined to present pressing problems. 

The first of the second-year students came to the School in September, 
1930, when a group of sixteen enrolled. In 1933-34, after a year s postpone 
ment, return was made obligatory. Immediately the total enrolment in 
Toronto leaped to 666. With six different groups first and second years 
in each of the First Class, Second Class, and Kindergarten-Primary 
courses the School s organization became the most complex in its his 
tory. For one year it lasted; then, in the summer of 1934, a change of 
requirements was announced. The second-year course was abandoned, 
and in its place were substituted standing in five university subjects or 
their equivalent and a summer course in educational methods. 

Other changes followed. A medical examination, conducted by doctors 
appointed by the Department of Education in co-operation with the 
Department of Health, became obligatory in 1935 for each student 
admitted to a course in teacher-training. A system of passing the better 
students on the basis of term records was introduced in the same year. 
The addition of several weeks of continuous observation and practice, 
both urban and rural, to the schedule of single practice lessons was a for 
ward step in 1936-37. 

The social life of the school was strongly upheld under Mr. Whyte. 
The staff teas in the library became an institution, and inter-Normal 
meets were held at the Ontario Agricultural College in Guelph, as well 
as at other Normal Schools. No school team ever had a more enthusiastic 
supporter than Mr. Whyte. At the banquet which followed each game, 

Principals Through the Century 

Top row, left to right: T. J. Robertson, M.A. (1847-1866); J. H. Sangster, M.A., M. D. (1866- 
1871); H. W. Davies. D.D. (1871-1884). Centre row, left to right: T. Kirkland, M.A. (1884-1898); 
S. J. Radcliffe, B.A., D.Paed. (1918-1929). Bottom row, left to right: 
(1929-1938); T. Mustard, M.A., B.Paed. (1938-1939); H. E. Elborn, 
M.A.. B.Paed. (1939- ) 

W. Scott, B.A. (1899-1918) 
D. Whyte, B.A., B.Paed. 

his speech was a masterpiece with stories eagerly anticipated and 
thoroughly enjoyed. 

In September, 1938, Mr. Whyte retired, having served the School as 
master and principal for a total of twenty-six years. "Among our fondest 
recollections," reads one of the Year-books, "will be those memories we 
possess of our Principal, Mr. Whyte. He was a daily inspiration to us. We 
saw him in many situations, some of them trying indeed, but he was ever 
the same kindly gracious, and patient." His portrait, painted by Charles 
MacGregor, was presented by his former students to the School in the 
autumn of 1940. On that occasion, the Honourable Duncan McArthur, 
Minister of Education, made the chief address, paying tribute to Mr. 
Whyte s valuable contribution to the training of teachers in Ontario. 

Mr. Whyte was succeeded as principal by Thornton Mustard, M. A., 
B. Paed., who had been identified with the School for twenty-eight years. 
First as a teacher in the Model School, then as its headmaster, and then as 
English Master in the Normal School, he had won a wide-spread reputa 
tion as a teacher of rare skill. During the school years 1936-38, he had been 
associated with Stanley A. Watson, B. A., Public School Principal, 
Toronto, in drafting a new programme of studies for public and separate 
schools. For this work Mr. Mustard had been relieved of teaching duties 
at the Normal School for two years. "Owing largely to his enthusiasm, 
eloquence, and human sympathy," wrote Dr. H. E. Amoss, Director of Pro 
fessional Training, "there was effected with a minimum of delay and 
confusion what might well be termed a bloodless revolution in the public 
and separate school system of teaching in the Province. Bonds of formal- 
istic education were shattered, and both teachers and pupils ushered 
into a new world of freedom and responsibility." 

Mr. Mustard, as principal, had many plans for the school, and during 
1938-39, he began to carry some of these into effect. Students were given 
charge of the opening exercises, interest or hobby groups were organized 
in connection with the Literary Society, a cafeteria was established for 
the use of Normal students and pupils of the Model School, and practice 
teaching arrangements were expanded to make use of many classrooms 
selected from a large number of city schools. In the midst of this activity, 
his work was tragically cut short. On his return journey from a brief 
holiday in England, he lost his life when the Athenia was torpedoed on 
September 3, 1939, at the beginning of the Second Great War. At the 
Memorial Service held in October, his message to his last class of students 
was read: "May it be yours," he wrote, "to see the light of understanding 
dawn in children s eyes, to kindle in children s hearts and minds the fires 

of ambition, enthusiasm, and zeal, May you share helpfully in the life of 
the community remembering that not what you get but what you give 
makes you rich indeed." 

On April 17, 1941, the theatre of the Normal School building was 
filled with friends of Thornton Mustard, to witness the unveiling of his 
portrait, and to hear the tribute of his close associate, Stanley Watson. 
The portrait, painted by Charles MacGregor, was presented by the 
teachers of Ontario in memory of one who had served education well. 
"He won success by his unceasing energy, his ability, his cheerfulness 
and his courage, but it was success which meant not personal gain, but 
a richer life for the children of the Province." 

Chapter VIM 


A. OR six YEARS the shadow of. the Second Great War lay 
on the Toronto Normal School. First came the tragic loss of Thornton 
Mustard. Then came the enlistment of graduates in the armed forces, 
with tidings from time to time and from distant lands of former students 
who had made the supreme sacrifice. One of these, F/L Malcolm Mclver, 
D. F. C., was valedictorian of the year 1940-41, and son of Murdoch 
Mclver of the School s Soldier Year, 1919-20. 

In the summer of 1941, the influence of the conflict was felt by 
the School in another way. A call came from the Department of National 
Defence for quarters in Toronto for Initial Training School No. 6, in 
connection with the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. The 
Government of Ontario promptly offered the buildings of the Normal 
and Model Schools and arrangements were quickly completed for the 
transfer of the teacher-training institution to the building known as 
the Earl Kitchener Public School. This three-storey building of seven 
teen rooms, located at 870 Pape Avenue in the Township of East York, 
was made available through the co-operation of the Toronto Board of 
Education. Though lacking an adequate auditorium, and having no 
gymnasium, the building provided reasonably satisfactory temporary 
quarters for the Normal School. 

H. E. Elborn, General Editor of Text-books in the Ontario Depart 
ment of Education, had been appointed principal of the School in 
October, 1939. It fell to his lot to supervise the move to the new building, 
and to adjust the life and routine of the institution to its new surround 

The Model School, sister institution of the Normal School for 
ninety-three years, was disbanded at the time of the transfer to Pape 
Avenue. Its pupils were absorbed in the public, separate, or private 


schools of the city, and its teachers were either transferred to the staff 
of Toronto Public Schools, or were assigned new duties under the De 
partment of Education. 

The Model School had played a valuable role in the history of 
teacher-training in Ontario. Organized at a time when the common 
schools of the community were not of high standard, it had provided, 
as its name implied, a model for student-teachers to copy later in 
schools of their own. By the twentieth century, the publicly supported 
schools of the Province were well organized, well-housed, well-equipped, 
and well-staffed, and consequently were in a position to provide facili 
ties for teacher-training purposes. For that reason, special Model Schools 
were not attached to the Normal Schools instituted in London, Hamilton, 
North Bay, Peterborough, and Stratford. But the Model Schools in 
Ottawa and Toronto continued to operate. They stood a little apart 
from the city school systems; they had their own traditions and com 
manded their own loyalties. When their buildings were taken over 
during the war, families whose children had been educated in the 
"Model" for several generations mourned the passing of what had be 
come beloved institutions. 

The place that the Toronto Normal Model School held in the hearts 
of its "old boys and girls" had been shown in February, 1934, when a 
reunion was held of its graduates of fifty or more years before. Sir 
John Aird, Sir Henry Pellatt, and Col. A. E. Gooderham were among 
former students who attended this party organized by Headmaster 
F. M. McCordic in connection with Toronto s Centennial Year. "One 
by one the old students appeared," reads a report in the Mail and 
Empire of February 22, 1934, "looked quickly around the gathering 
and then, with Hello Bill or Well, well, Charlie, began to renew the 
acquaintances of more than half a century ago. There were those who 
brought old prize books, others with old photographs and autograph 
albums, and others with old reports. In one corner of the room were 
the old registers. Grey heads bent over these yellowing volumes, pick 
ing out who stood first in his class or laughing because they discovered 
they stood last." 

Headmasters of the Model School after the turn of the century 
were: Angus Mclntosh (1887-1912); R. W. Murray (1913-15); Milton 
A. Sorsoleil (1915-21); Thornton Mustard (1921-23); F. M. McCordic 
(1923-40); and Adam McLeoti (1940-41). Of these, M. A. Sorsoleil later 
became Deputy Minister of Welfare for Ontario, Thornton Mustard 
became eighth principal of the Toronto Normal School, and Mr. McLeod 

became Supervisor of Correspondence Courses in the Department of 
Education. Two staff members often recalled by graduates of the school 
are Thomas Porter and Charters Sharpe. Mr. Sharpe is now on the 
staff of University of Toronto Schools, and keeps in close touch with 
the "old boys" of the Model by post-card, circular letter, and informal 
reunion. Former members of the staff who are now enjoying retirement 
in Toronto are: Misses May K. Caulfield, Alice Harding, Lilian Harding, 
A. F. Laven, and Mary E. Maclntyre; Messrs. F. M. McCordic, C. D. 
Bouck, and E. H. Price. The staff of the Model School during its final 
year, 1940-41, was composed of: A. McLeod, C. T. Sharpe, R. G. Kendall, 
C. E. McMullen, Jessie I. Cross, Doris R. Soden, Jessie McKay, Rose Lynch, 
Mrs. K. Crawford, Marion Evans, Jean Greig, Mrs. C. S. Burke, Elizabeth 
Mitchell, M. Maude Watterworth, A. Elsie Sherin, and Mrs. Vera S. 
Fuller. The following members of the Normal School staff were asso 
ciated with the Model School: G. S. Apperley, D. W. Burns, E. Grace 
Conover, Joicey M. Home, Mrs. Vera E. Russell. 

The Toronto Normal School, 870 Pape Ave., Toronto 

St. James Square, under the vigorous direction of the Commandant, 
Group Captain J. Hanschett-Taylor, rapidly became an efficient air- 
training centre. Auxiliary buildings sprang up around the permanent 
blocks, and a great drill hall dominated the eastern portion of the grounds. 
The old school-buildings were used as lecture rooms and dormitories. 
"It is not a new experience to sleep in the Normal and Model Schools," 

said a former student who found himself quartered in one of his old 
classrooms, "but it is a new experience to sleep there with a clear 

Meanwhile two members of the Normal School staff were serving 
in the forces Lt. Col. S. A. Watson and S/L G. S. Apperley as were 
also two members of the Model School staff, W/C R. G. Kendall and 
S/L C. E. McMullen. 

Some changes were made in the training of teachers in the Province, 
following the appointment, in 1939, of Dr. H. E. Amoss as Director of 
Professional Training. The courses of study were revised, the number 
of final examination papers was reduced to ten, the number of weeks 
spent in continuous observation and practice teaching was increased 
to four, the policy of inter-changing normal school masters and school 
inspectors for periods of one or two years was introduced, and the 
Primary Specialist Course was begun. 

The Primary Specialist Course was established in 1939 to prepare 
teachers for work in junior and senior kindergartens, and Grades I 
and II. It is offered only at the Toronto Normal School, and applicants 
are required to hold either a first-class teaching certificate or a degree 
in arts. Proficiency in music, vocal and piano, is a further requirement 
for admission. The course is strongly practical in its organization, eight 
weeks of continuous teaching supplementing the usual schedule of 
practice lessons. Students taking the course not only receive instruc 
tion at the Normal School, but attend weekly lectures at the Institute 
of Child Study, University of Toronto. Model School teachers who were 
instructors on the first staff of the Primary Specialist Course were 
Mrs. Claire Senior Burke, and Misses M. Maude Watterworth and 
Elsie A. Sherin. Upon the transfer of the Normal School to Pape Avenue, 
these three teachers were employed in Wilkinson Public School where 
they continued to assist with the training of students in the Primary 
Specialist Course. Mrs. Burke in 1947 continues as instructress in 
Kindergarten Methods on the staff of the Normal School, and directress 
of the morning Kindergarten in Wilkinson School. Mrs. Emerson 
Robertson (nee M. Maude Watterworth) died in June, 1946, and Miss 
A. E. Sherin in November of the same year. 

Definite efforts have been made in recent years to keep the Normal 
School in close touch with the teaching field. One means used has been 
the interchange of masters and inspectors. A second method has been 
the holding of regular conferences between teachers in the Normal 

School and inspectors in surrounding counties and urban centres. Dis 
cussions at these meetings have done much to acquaint the two groups 
with the problems and viewpoints of those concerned with the pre- 
service and in-service training of teachers. 

With the coming of peace, the Toronto Normal School has continued 
to occupy its temporary quarters on Pape Avenue, its former buildings 
now being used by the Toronto Training and Re-establishment Institute, 
where personnel discharged from the forces are equipped, through 
various courses, to earn a living in the commercial, industrial, or pro 
fessional world. The Director of the Institute is Lt. Col. F. H. Wood, 
the Registrar is Major J. C. Boylen, and the Regional Director of Cana 
dian Vocational Training for Ontario is H. H. Kerr. This book printed 
by the School of Graphic Arts, one branch of the Institute, is evidence 
not only of the practical instruction offered there, but of the cordial 
relations existing between the Normal School and the educational 
organization that occupies its former buildings. 

The Normal School has had its own responsibility in the education 
of men and women from the forces. Since 1945, thirty or forty students 
each year have attended the School under the rehabilitation plan. 
Unlike the class of 1919-20, none of these classes could be called the 
"Soldier Year," as Navy, Army, and Air Force women as well as 
men have been represented in the returned group. The high quality 
of the work of these students during their training year, gives promise 
of a valuable contribution to the schools of Ontario in the years ahead. 

Members of the staff of the Toronto Normal School during the 
1946-47 year were: H. E. Elborn, Dr. W. E. M. Aitken, R. A. Johnston, 
E. A. Miller, C. A. Mustard, M. H. Park, A. M. Patterson, Miss F. F. 
Halliday, Miss M. C. Young, Miss J. L. Merchant, Miss J. M. Home, 
Mrs. F. G. Russell, Mrs. E. H. McKone, W. L. Strieker, D. W. Burns, 
Mrs. C. S. Burke and Miss A. E. Sherin. Mr Miller died early in the 
autumn of 1946, and Mr. H. E. Ricker, former principal of North Bay 
Normal School acted as Science Master in his stead, from November, 
1946, to June, 1947. Miss E. B. Rennie and Miss A. N. Dimytosh are 
the secretaries of the School. 

One hundred years is a long time in the history of public education 
in any land. In the century from 1847 to 1947 the pioneer Normal School 
of the Province has become one of a group of eight schools entrusted 
with the training of teachers for the elementary schools, the University 
of Ottawa Normal School having been opened in 1927. Two of these 

sister Normal Schools are now headed by former masters of the Toronto 
Normal School Dr. C. E. Mark, appointed principal in London in 1932, 
and W. K. F. Kendrick, appointed principal of the Ottawa Normal 
School in 1946. 

But the Toronto Normal School has meant much more in the 
educational history of Ontario than an institution for the training of 
teachers. As the home of the Education Office for many years it was, 
as Lord Elgin termed it, the seed-plot of the school system. In it, 
diverse educational projects were nurtured until they became sturdy 
enough for independent growth. Thus the collection of curios in the 
corridors of the Normal School is but a memory, dwarfed by the Royal 
Ontario Museum; the School of Art and Design has become the Ontario 
College of Art; the copies of old masters and the plaster reproductions 
of famous statuary, once the pride of the Normal School, are forgotten 
now that original masterpieces are on view in the Art Gallery of 
Toronto; experiments in cereal production, once a feature of the 
School s grounds, are now the province of the Ontario Agricultural 
College; the training of high school teachers, begun in the School in 
1858, is now the function of the Ontario College of Education; books 
once assembled in the building in St. James Square now form the 
nucleus of the educational section of the Legislative Library. And so 
the catalogue could go on. The Toronto Normal School was long not 
only the seed-bed, but, as Ryerson described it, the main-spring of the 
system of public instruction. 

Those days are gone by, but the chief task of the school that of 
teaching those who will teach our children remains one of first im 
portance. In this history we have read much of staff members and 
buildings of masters and masonry, if you will, but a school is more 
than bricks and stone, more than its teachers; it is the sum of its staff, 
students, and graduates. Just as those groups have won for the Toronto 
Normal School, during the past century, the place it holds in the educa 
tional life of the Province, so those groups to-day must uphold and 
strive to improve the quality of the school s work in the years to come. 
To men and women teaching or studying in its classrooms, or leaving 
its halls for classrooms of their own, might be addressed the lines from 
Newbolt s Clifton Chapel: 

"Henceforth the School and you are one, 
And what You are the race shall be." 

Part IV 

Staff Through the Century 

The persons listed below served on the teaching staff of the Toronto Normal 
School at some period during the years from 1847 to 1947. Names of members on 
the staff in November, 1947, are printed in italics. 

Adair, Miss Mary, Kindergarten assist 
ant, 1892-1893. 

Adams, Miss Annie, Model School tea 
cher, 1871-1878. 

Adams, Miss M., Model School teacher, 
1863-1865; Head Mistress Girls Mod 
el School, 1865-1866. 

Aitken, W. E. M.. M.A., Ph.D., Master, 

Apperley, Gordon S., Model School 
assistant, 1922-1931; Instructor, Man 
ual Training, 1931-1941, On leave 

Archibald, Charles, M.D., Model School 
Teacher, 1868-1869. 

Armstrong, William, Drawing master, 

Baldwin, Miss L. H., Teacher of Do 
mestic Science, Model School, 1899- 

Bale, Miss Evelyn, Instructor of Phys 
ical Education, Model School, 1937- 
1940; Library Assistant, 1947- 

Barron, F. W., M.A., Master, 1857, May- 

Bell, D. C., Professor of Elocution, 

Bell, Robert, Model School teacher, 

Bentley, J., Drawing master, 1857-1859. 

Bibby, Miss Marie V., B.A., B.Paed., 
Master, 1923-1931 (Mrs. S. Nesbitt) . 

Blanchard, H. A., B.A., Master, 1947- 

Borden, Miss Eunice L., B.A., Assistant 
Librarian, 1926-1929. 

Borland, Sgt.-Maj. D., Instructor in 
Drill, 1901-1905. 

Bouck, Clarence D., Model School as 
sistant, 1921-1939. 

Bowden, Mrs. C. E., Master, 1931- 

Bowen, Mrs. M. H., Assistant Secretary, 

Breed, Miss Gladys M., Instructor of 
Home Economics, 1919-1923 (Mrs. 
James Coulter). 

Brenton, Miss Clara, Kindergarten- 
Primary teacher, 1916. 

Brown, Mrs. M. W., Instructor in Read 
ing, 1908-1945. 

Bunker, Miss Bessie C., Instructor of 
Physical Education, Model School, 

Burke, Mrs. C. S., Instructor, Primary 
Specialists, 1939- 

Burns, Lieut. D. W., Instructor of Phys 
ical Training, 1939- 

Campbell, Alex. R., Model School tea 
cher, 1859-1864. 

Campbell, J. D., B.A., D.Paed., Master, 

Campbell, Miss Margaret A., Instructor 
and Kindergarten assistant, 1934- 
1937 (Mrs. Murray Dryden). 

Cannon, C. F., B.A., B.Paed., I. P. S. 

York, Exchange master, 1940-1941. 
Care, Miss Jean I, Instructor and Kin 
dergarten assistant, 1938-1939. 
Carlyle, James, M.D., Headmaster, 
Boys Model School, 1858-1871, Mas 
ter, 1871-1893. 

Carter, Miss Emma, Model School tea 
cher, 1877-1880. 

Carter, Miss Mary, Model School tea 
cher, 1872-1877. 

Casselman, A. C., Drawing master, 
1892-1908, Master, 1909. 

Caulfeild, Miss May K., Model School 
teacher, 1887-1918; First Female as 
sistant, 1918-1930. 

Clare, Samuel, Writing master, 1867- 

Clark, Miss Clara J., Model School tea 
cher, 1865-1869. 

Clark, Mrs. Dorcas, First Head Mis 
tress, Girls Model School, 1852-1865. 

Clark, Miss Helen M., Model School 
teacher, 1855-1865. 

Clarke, J. P., Music teacher, 1848, 
February- June. 

Clarkson, Charles, B.A., Headmaster, 
Boys Model School, 1882-1886. 

Cleland, Miss M. O., B.A., Assistant 
Librarian, 1945, April-October. 

Cody, Miss Ellen, Kindergarten assist 
ant, 1894-1922; Instructor, Kinder 
garten principles, 1914-1922. 

Colles, W. H. G., Model School teacher, 
1878, March-December. 

Conover, Miss E. G., M.A., B.S., In 
structor, Home Economics, 1938-1942. 

Cooper, Thomas, Music teacher, 1856- 

Coulon, Alphonse, Drawing master, 

Craig, F. J., Writing master, 1854-1855. 

Crawford, Mrs. K., B.A., Model School 
assistant, 1937-1941. 

Cringan, A. T., Mus. Bac., Music tea 
cher, 1901-1931. 

Cringan, Elizabeth R., Instructor and 
Kindergarten assistant, 1921-1925 
(Mrs. J. W. Gardner). 

Cross, Miss Jessie I., B.A., Model School 
teacher, 1917-1941. 

Cullen, Mrs. Martha, Head Mistress, 
Girls Model School, 1867-1884. 

Currie, Miss Jean B., Model School as 
sistant, 1929-1936. 

Dallimore, Miss Edith A., Assistant 
Secretary, 1930-1937. 

Davey, Miss Lillian, Model School tea 
cher, 1909-1912; as Mrs. L. Spence, 
Model School teacher, 1915-1917. 

Davey, P. N., M.D., Model School tea 
cher, 1879-1884. 

Davies, Rev. H. W., D.D., Master, 1866- 
1871; Third Principal, 1871-1884. 

Davison, John L., B.A., M.D., Model 
School teacher, 1873-1884. 

Dearnlay, C. R., Instructor in Drill and 
Calisthenics, 1877-1884. 

De Lestard, Guy, French teacher, 1905- 

De Lestard, Mrs. G., French teacher, 
Model School, 1910-1939. 

Dimytosh, Miss A. N., Assistant secre 
tary, 1946- 

Disher, John C., M.D., Model School 
teacher, 1858-1864. 

Borland, S. M., M.D., Model School 
teacher, 1876-1884. 

Edwards, C. H., B.A., D.Paed., Master, 

Elborn, H. E., M.A., B.Paed., Ninth 
Principal, 1939- 

Elliott, W. H., B.A., Vice-Principal, 

Evans, Miss Marion, B.A., Model School 
assistant, 1937-1941. 

Ewing, Miss Nina A., Instructor in 
Home Economics, 1903-1932. 

Firth, John W., B.A., Master, 1921-1939. 

Fletcher, M. J., Model School teacher, 

Fotheringham, David, Model School 
teacher. 1856-1858; Headmaster, Boys 
Model School, 1858, February- 

Fripp, H. G. R., Normal School teacher, 

Fuller, Mrs. V. S., Secretary, 1924-1930; 
Model School assistant, 1930-1941. 

Gillmayr, Miss Natalie, French teacher, 

Glashan, J. C., Model School teacher, 

Goodwin, Major H., Instructor in Drill 
and Calisthenics, 1852-1853; 1854- 

Graham, Miss Dorothea, B.A., Kinder 
garten assistant, 1939-1940. 

Graham, Mrs. F. T., Teacher of Elocu 
tion, 1878-1880. 

Grant, Miss Cherry, B.A., Assistant 
Librarian, 1923-1926. 

Greig, Miss Jean, Pianist, 1925-1941. 

Hagarty, Miss Kate F., Model School 
teacher, 1875-1890. 

Hailman, Miss Bessie E., First Kinder 
garten Directress, 1885-1886. 

Halliday, Miss Florence F., B.A., 
B.Paed., Master, 1923- 

Harding, Miss Alice A., Model School 
assistant, 1911-1937. 

Harding, Miss Lilian B., Kindergarten- 
Primary teacher, 1917-1939; Instruc 
tor, 1925-1939. 

Hardwick, Herbert, Model School as 
sistant, 1927-1929. 

Hare, Arthur F., Instructor in Writing, 

Hart, Miss C. M. C., Second Kinder 
garten Directress, 1886-1892. 

Hay, Miss Mabel E., Instructor in 
Household Science, 1923-1945. 

Hickok, S. A., Music master, 1857-1858. 

Hill, Miss E. M., Model School teacher, 

Hind, H. Youle, Master, 1847-1852. 

Hind, William, Drawing master, 1851- 

Hipwell, Miss Phyllis, B.A., Instructor 
in Art, 1930-1931. 

Hodgins, Miss Mabel E., Instructor and 
Kindergarten assistant, 1925-1932; 
Fourth Kindergarten Directress, 1932- 

Home, Miss Joicey M., A.O.C.A., In 
structor in Art, 1937- 

Hughes, James L., LL.D., Model School 

teacher, 1867-1871 Headmaster, Boys 

Model School, 1871-1874. 
Hunt, Miss M. E., Model School teacher, 


Hutton, Miss S. B., Assistant Secre 
tary, 1926-1927. 
Ingall, Elmer E., B.A., Master, 1926- 

Irving, Miss M. G. N., B.A., B.Paed., 

Master, 1941-1942. 
Irwin, Mrs. J., B.A., B.Paed., Instructor 

in Art, 1934. 
Johnston, Miss Catherine, Model 

School teacher, 1852-1855. 
Johnston, Miss Emma, Kindergarten 

assistant, 1888, January-August. 
Johnston, Miss Olga I., Instrcctor in 

Home Economics, 1932-1938; 1943- 

Johnston, Mrs. P. F., Instructor in 

Household Science, 1931-1934. 
Johnston, R. A., B.A., B.Paed., Master, 

1932- ; Exchange Inspector, York 6, 

Jones, Miss L. H., Model School teacher, 

Jordon, John C., Model School teacher, 

Joyce, Sgt.-Maj. J., Assistant Instructor 

in Drill, 1926-1929. 
Keefe, Nat., Instructor in Physical 

Training, 1933-1939. 
Kendall, Robert, B.A., Model School 

assistant, 1929-1941. 
Kendrick, W. K. F., B.A., B.Paed., 

Master, 1931-1945, Exchange In 
spector, South Simcoe, 1941-1943. 
Kerr, Miss Dorothy L, Assistant Li 
brarian, 1929-1935 (Mrs. Oliver W. 

Keyes, S. J., B.A., D.Paed., Master, 


King, Arthur, Instructor in Drill, 1900. 
Kirkland, Thomas A., M.A., Master, 

1871-1884; Fourth Principal, 1885- 


Kniseley, Miss C. E., Model SchoolMcIntosh, Angus, Model School teacher, 

teacher, 1909-1921 (Mrs. A. C. 

Knox, Miss Agnes, Teacher of Elocu 
tion, 1891-1892. 

Laidlaw, Miss Jean R., Kindergarten 
assistant, 1891-1892. 

Laven, Miss A. F., Model School tea 
cher, 1901-1931. 

Lean, Miss M., Instructor in Needle 
work, 1917. 

Legge, Q.-M. Sgt. J. S , Instructor in 
Drill, 1906-1909. 

LeRoy, Miss Grace, Secretary, 1907- 
1919 (Mrs. T. M. Manson). 

Lewis, Richard, Teacher of Elocution, 

Lindsay, Miss Norma M., Model School 

assistant, 1925-1934 (Mrs. Walter 


Livingstone, John, Model School tea 
cher, 1855, April-October. 

Lowey, Charles, Headmaster, Boys 
Model School, 1848, February-August. 

Lusk, Charles H., M.D., Model School 
teacher, 1864-1867. 

Lynch, Miss Rose, Model School assist 
ant, 1940-1941. 

Macbeth, Mrs. Emma, Instructor in 
Needlework, 1902-1919. 

McCallum, Archibald, M.A., Head 
master, Boys Model School, 1848- 

McCausland, Miss C. E., Model School 
teacher, 1868-1871. 

McConnell, R. A. A., B.A., Master, 1925- 

McCordic, F. M., Model School assist 
ant, 1912-1923; Headmaster, Model 
School, 1923-1940. 

Macdonald, Adrian, M.A., Master, 1938- 

McFaul, J. H., M.D., Drawing Master, 


1884-1887; Headmaster, Boys Model 
School, 1887-1912. 

Macintyre, Miss Mary E., Kindergarten 
assistant, 1890-1892; Third Kinder 
garten Directress, 1892-1932. 

McKay, Miss Jessie, Model School as 
sistant, 1934-1941. 

McKenzie, Miss L. P., Kindergarten as 
sistant, 1889-1890. 

MacKenzie, Miss Wilhelmina, Teacher 
of Calisthenics, 1896-1899. 

McKone, Edward H., B.A., B.Paed., 
Master, 1928-1929. 

McKone, Mrs. I. E., Instructor in Home 
Economics, 1946- 

McLellan, Miss Hattie, Model School 
teacher, 1884-1887. 

McLeod, Adam, Model School assistant, 
1921-1940; Headmaster, Model School, 

McLurg, James, M.D., Model School 
teacher, 1884-1887. 

McMullen, Cecil E., B.A., Model School 
assistant, 1931-1941. 

MacMurchy, A., Teacher, 1857, June- 

McPhedran, A., M.D., Model School 
teacher, 1871-1876. 

McVittie, W. R., B.A., Model School 
assistant, 1931, January- June. 

Mark, Clarence E., B.A., D.Paed., Mas 
ter, 1921-1931. 

Mason, H. C., B.S.A., Master, 1928- 

Mason, Mrs. W. W., Instructor in Music, 

Masson, Eugene, French teacher, 1893- 

Meehan, Miss M., Model School teacher, 

1883-1901; First Female assistant, 

Meneilley, Miss J., Model School 

teacher, 1878, September-December; 


Merchant, Miss Jean, Librarian, 1919- 

Merritt, Miss Hope, Model School tea 
cher, 1904-1910 (Mrs. Gillespie). 

Miller, E. A., B.S.A., B.Paed., Master, 

Mills, Miss Hattie B., B.A., Model 
School teacher, 1896-1900. 

Mitchell, Miss Elizabeth, Mus. Bac., 
Instructor and Kindergarten assist 
ant, 1940-1942. 

Mitchell, Mrs. Kate H., Teacher of 
Domestic Economy, 1897. 

Montgomery, John E., B.A., Model 
School assistant, 1917-1921. 

Montizambert, Miss L. H., Teacher of 
Scientific Sewing, 1897-1898. 

Mooney, W. H. T., B.A., Master, 1923- 

Moore, R., Model School teacher, 1858, 

Morgan, Miss G., B.A., B Paed., Master, 
1946, January-June. 

Morris, James, Model School teacher, 

Moshier, D. D., B.A., B.Paed., Master, 

Mossop, Miss Rhea S., Instructor and 
Kindergarten assistant, 1932-1934 
(Mrs. C. Rutledge). 

Murray, R. W., B.A., Model School tea 
cher, 1887-1913; Headmaster, Model 
School, 1913-1915; Master, Normal 
School, 1916-1917. 

Mustard, C. A., B.A., M.B.E., Master, 

Mustard, J. Thornton, M.A., B.Paed., 
Model School teacher, 1911-1921; 
Headmaster, Model School, 1921- 
1923; Master Normal School, 1923- 
1937, Eighth Principal, 1938-1939. 

Oake, Miss S. M., Assistant Secretary, 

Oldright, William, M.D., Instructor in 
Hygiene, 1903-1905. 

Ormiston. David. M.A.. Model School 
teacher, 1855-1857. 

Ormiston, Rev. William, B.A., D.D., 
Master, 1853-1857. 

Page, Miss Pauline, Model School 
assistant, 1927-1929 (Mrs. C. 
Clapperton) . 

Paige, Robert G., Music master, 1854- 

Park, M. H., B.A., B.Paed. Master, 1942- 

Parr, T., Instructor in Drill and Cal 
isthenics, 1884-1898. 

Patterson, A. M., M.A., B.Paed., Master, 

Percy, C. E., F.L.C.M., Instructor in 
Music, 1931-1937. 

Phillips, Miss Edith V., Model School 
assistant, 1921-1925 (Mrs. C. 

Porter, Thomas M., Model School tea 
cher, 1888-1910. 

Powell, Miss Auta, Instructor in Art, 

Prendergast, William, B.A., D.Paed., 
Master, 1909-1922. 

Preston, S. H., Music master, 1882- 

Price, Major E. H., Instructor in Drill 

Purslow, Adam, B.A., LL.D., Model 
School teacher, 1858, May-September. 

Radcliffe, S. J., B.A., D.Paed., Sixth 
Principal, 1918-1929. 

Rennie, Miss Edna B., Secretary, 1927- 

Richardson, Miss Isabella, Model School 
assistant, 1913-1929. 

Ricker, H. E., M.A., B.Paed., Master, 

Robertson, J. H., Music master, 1848. 

Robertson, T. Jaffray, M.A., First Prin 
cipal, 1847-1866. 

Robins, S. P., M.A., LL.D , Model School 
teacher, 1852-1854. 

Rock, Warren, Model School teacher, 

Rose, Miss Ada E., Model School tea 
cher, 1888-1892. 

Rose, Miss Martha, Model School tea 
cher, 1888-1894. 

Ross, Miss Mary M., Kindergarten as 
sistant, 1888-1889. 

Ross, Miss Sarah M., Model School 
teacher, 1892-1902. 

Russell, Miss Nellie, Model School tea 
cher, 1891, September-December. 

Russell, Mrs. Vera E., Instructor in 
Music, 1937- 

St. John, Miss Elizabeth, Assistant 
librarian, 1935-1942. 

Sangster, J. H., M.A., M.D., Model 
School teacher, 1849-1853; Master, 
Normal School, 1858-1866; Second 
Principal, 1866-1871. 

Schnick, Frederick W., Model School 
assistant, 1921-1923. 

Scott, Miss Margaret T., Head Mistress, 
Girls Model School, 1884-1901. 

Scott, William, B.A., Model School 
teacher, 1869-1874; Headmaster, Boys 
Model School, 1874-1882; Vice-Prin 
cipal, Normal School, 1894-1899; Fifth 
Principal, 1899-1919. 

Sefton, H. F., Music master, 1858-1882. 

Sharpe, Charters T., Model School as 
sistant, 1921-1941. 

Shenick, Miss Henrietta, Model School 

teacher, 1855-1862. 
Sherin, Miss Elsie, Instructor and Model 

School assistant, 1939-1946. 
Silcox, S., B.A., D.Paed., Master, 1908. 

Sinclair, Arthur H., B.A., Model School 
teacher, 1887-1888. 

Sinclair, Mrs. Muriel G.. Master, 1923- 

Small, Miss Alma, Instructor in Phys 
ical Education, Model School, 1940- 

Smith, Clayton R., B.A., C.G.A., In 
structor in Bookkeeping, 1932-1934. 

Smitheram, F. B., B.A., Master, 1941- 

Soden, Miss Doris R., Model School as 
sistant, 1931-1941. 

Somers, Mrs. Jean, Instructor in Cal 
isthenics, 1900-1922. 

Sorsoleil, Milton A., Model School tea 
cher 1903-1916; Headmaster, Model 
School, 1916-1921. 

Spencer, Miss Eva, Model School as 
sistant, 1929-1930 (Mrs. Davis). 

Stacey, J. Samuel, Writing master, 

Stevenson, O. J., M.A., D.Paed., Master, 

Stockton, Miss Carolyn, Instructor in 

physical training, Model School, 1923- 

1929 (Mrs. L. M. Archibald). 

Strachan, Alexander D., M.D., Writing 
master, 1858-1861. 

Strachan, H. G., Writing master, 1861- 

Strieker, W. L., Instructor in Manual 
Training, 1943- 

Stuart, Miss Alice, Model School tea 
cher, 1890-1901. 

Stubbs, S. J., B.A., Master, 1916-1923. 

Sutherland, Miss C. F., Model School 
teacher, 1895-1896. 

Taylor, Miss F. M., Model School tea 
cher, 1902-1908. 

Thompson, Mrs. Eleanor Shepherd, 
M.A., Ph.D., Instructor in Art, 1932- 

Thompson, Miss Miriam, Pianist, 1915- 

Townsend, William, Music master, 1848- 

Tupper, Elon, Music master, 1853-1854. 

Turnbull, Miss Jessie, Model School 
teacher, 1865-1868. 


Uren, Miss Mary Frances, B.A., In 
structor in Physical Training, Model 
School, 1922-1923. 

Vallentyne, H. J., B.A., I.P.S., Toronto, 
Master, 1933-1934, on loan from 
Toronto Board of Education. 

Vining, Miss Charlotte, Secretary, 1919- 
1925 (Mrs. Thomas Allan). 

Walks, R. H., B.A., Master, 1913-1927. 

Walsh, Patrick, Music master, 1850- 

Warner, E., Instructor in Writing and 
Bookkeeping, 1912-1914. 

Watson, S. A., B.A., Master, 1940-1941; 

Watson, Thomas, Instructor in Writing 
and Bookkeeping, 1915-1916. 

Watterworth, Miss Martha Maud, In 
structor and Kindergarten-Primary 
teacher, 1921-1946 (Mrs. E. 

Watts, Walter A., Master, 1857-1858. 

Weare, Mrs. Orpha Hickling, Assistant 
secretary, 1937-1942. 

Whimster, Miss Christina, Model School 
teacher, 1873-1874. 

Whyte, David, B.A., Master, 1909-1925; 
Seventh Principal, 1929-1938. 

Wilkinson, James H., Instructor in 
Manual Training, 1903-1931. 

Wilkinson, Mrs. Laura J., Model School 
teacher, 1923-1925. 

Wilson, Miss A. E. G., Model School 
teacher, 1903-1909. 

Wood, Miss Jeannie, Model School tea 
cher, 1889-1903. 

Young, Miss M. C., M.A., B.Paed., Mas 
ter, 1931- 

100 DISC/A,^ 



This book may be kept "7 days 
After that time, a fine of 5 
cents a day will be charged. 
Date Due 

f /SCHOOL^. 

30 DISC/A,^ 


330.971 Toronto Normal School, 1847- 
T686 1947.